Notes on culture
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Notes on Culture. I. Culture. 1. Consists of the values the members of a given group hold, the norms they follow and the material goods they create. 2. Composed of material and non material. a. Material: all things humans make and use

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Notes on Culture

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Notes on Culture


I. Culture

  • 1. Consists of the values the members of a given group hold, the norms they follow and the material goods they create.


2. Composed of material and non material

  • a. Material: all things humans make and use

  • b. Nonmaterial: totality of knowledge, beliefs, values, and rules for appropriate behaviors.


  • c. Norms: rules of behavior agreed and shared within culture that prescribes limits to behavior.


II. 2 types of Norm violations.

  • 1. Mores: strong norms based on values/morals of the culture.


  • 2. Folkways: informal, loosely enforced rules and traditions.


  • 3. Sanctions: formal and informal reactions to the breaking of norms

  • Formal- Written, documented sanctions

  • Informal- Not written


III. Cultural Variation-Material culture changes much faster than a non material culture.


  • 1. Change occurs due to borrowing.

  • 2. Change also occurs due to invention.

  • 3. Cultural diffusion-spreading of cultural traits.


  • IV. 1. Ethnocentrism- judging another culture based on your own customs and values.


Avoid by using- cultural relativism: judge an action by their own cultural standards.


  • 2. Universals of culture-elements of culture that can be found in ALL cultures; examples include: rites of passage, incest taboo, division of labor, ideologies


3. Culture shock-experiencing a new culture for the first time.


V. Subcultures-groups within a bigger culture with shared norms, etc.

  • EthnicOccupationalPolitical

  • ReligiousDeviant

  • Social classGeographic


VI. Art forms and pastimes

  • 1. Art forms-physical manifestations/symbols of culture.


  • 2. Pastimes-what people do when they are not working, recreation, do not have to do it.


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