Lab # 2
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Lab # 2. Blood . Objectives:. 1- List the functions of blood. 2 - Describe each component of blood. 3 - Distinguish each type of blood cell on a blood-smear slide. . 4 - Describe the antigen-antibody reactions of the ABO and Rh blood groups. . -Blood.

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Objectives

Lab # 2

Blood

Objectives:

1- List the functions of blood.

2- Describe each component of blood.

3- Distinguish each type of blood cell on a blood-smear slide.

4- Describe the antigen-antibody reactions of the ABO and Rh blood groups.


Objectives

-Blood

It is the liquid medium in which these substance travel.

-Cardiovascular System

The Circulatory System

Blood vessels

The plumbing that ensure the proper routing of blood to its destination.

It transports substances from place to place in the body.

Heart

The muscular pump that makes blood to circulate through the blood vessels.


Objectives

P L A S M A

FORMED ELEMENTS

White blood cells

0.1%

Platelets

1- Composition of Whole Blood

Water 92%

Plasma proteins 7%

Other solutes 1%

Centrifugation

Red blood cells 99.9%


Objectives

P L A S M A

They are made in the liver.

Functions: Transport lipids and steroids hormones.

It is also made in the liver.

Functions:Essential component of clotting system

They are produce by white blood cells (lymphocytes) and by the liver.

Functions: Antibodies. Transport ions, hormones and lipids.

Plasma is 92% water in which are dissolved proteins and a mixture of other materials (hormones, nutrients, wastes and electrolytes).

Albumins (60%)

Globulins (35%)

Proteins of the plasma

Fibrinogen (4%)

Regulatory proteins (< 1%)

Enzymes, proenzymes and hormones.


Objectives

Formed Elements of Blood

Monocyte

Small

lymphocyte

Neutrophil

Platelets

Eosinophil

Small

lymphocyte

Erythrocyte

Neutrophil

Monocyte

Large

lymphocyte

Neutrophil

Basophil


Objectives

Red Blood Cells or Erythrocytes

- They constitute 99.9% of all the formed cell in blood.

- They are biconcave discs, thick in the outer edges and thin in the center.

- They lack of nucleus and other organelles and live only an average of 120 days.

Function:

They contain the hemoglobin, which transport O2and CO2


Objectives

White Blood Cells or Leukocytes

1- Granulocytes

They contains granules, which contain lysosomal enzymes and bactericidal compounds.

Neutrophils

Eosinophils

Basophils

Monocytes

Lymphocytes

2- Agranulocytes

They have few or any granules


Objectives

Granulocytes

1- Neutrophils

- They form 50% to 70% of the circulating white blood cells (WBC).

Normal value: 7,000 to 8,000/mm

3

- Their nucleus has 2 to 5 lobes

- Granules are chemically neutral

Functions

They phagocyte bacteria, which have been market by antibodies and complement proteins.

(Neutrophilia)

Bacterial infection

Neutrophils


Objectives

Granulocytes

2- Eosinophils

-They form 2% to 4% of circulating WBC

- They have bilobulated nucleus

- Granules are chemically acid (red)

Functions

They defend the body against parasites worms and flukes.

Infection by parasites and allergy

(Eosinophilia)

Eosinophils


Objectives

Vasodilator

Anticoagulant

Granulocytes

3- Basophils

-They form less than 1% of circulating WBC

- Granules are chemically basic (purple to blue)

- Granules contain histamine and heparin

Function

They accumulate in damaged tissues and release chemicals that enhance the inflammation.


Objectives

Agranulocytes

4- Monocytes

- They are the largest leukocytes.

- They are spherical with a nucleus that is oval or kidney bean shaped

Functions

- They stay in the blood for only 24 hours and then they move into the peripheral tissuesand become macrophages, which are very active and aggressive phagocytes.

- They release chemicals that attract other WBCs to the injury site.

- They defend the body against bacteria and viruses.

- They help activate the lymphocytes.


Objectives

Agranulocytes

5- Lymphocytes

- They form 20% to 30% of the circulating WBCs

- They have large nucleus and do not have granules

Functions

They play a crucial role in the specific immunity

T cells:(cell-mediated immunity): They destroy virus infected cell, and they coordinate the immune response.

B cells:(humoral immunity): They produce the plasma cells, which produce the antibodies.

NK cells: They detect abnormal or cancerous cells and target them for destruction ( Immune surveillance).


Objectives

Megakaryocyte

6- Platelets

Platelets

- They are fragments of megakaryocytes.

- There are only 1/3 of them in the blood stream. The rest of them are in the spleen and other vascular organs.

Functions

- They transport enzymes and other chemicals that help to initiate and regulate blood clotting.

- They form a temporary plug in the ruptured blood vessel wall.

- They contract to reduce the size of the hole in the vessel wall.


Objectives

Human Blood Cells

Monocyte

Red Blood Cells

Lymphocytes

Eosinophil

Platelets

Neutrophil

Basophil


Objectives

2- ABO and Rh Blood Groups

Blood types and transfusion compatibility are a matter of interaction between antigens and antibodies.

Antigens

They are foreign substances that are able to trigger an immune response. Most of antigens are proteins.

Antibodies

They are proteins produced by cells of the immune system, which are able to recognize an interact with the corresponding antigens.

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Plasma cell

Y

Antigens

Y

Y

Y

Y


Objectives

Antigen-antibody reaction is specific, meaning that the antibodies can recognize only the corresponding antigens.

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Antigens

Plasma cell

Plasma cell

Y

Antigens

Y

Y

Y

Y

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

Antigens

Plasma cell


Objectives

The plasma membrane of the cells contains glycoproteins (surface markers) on the outer surface that can act as antigens. That means that they can trigger an immune response and can interact with the corresponding antibodies.

Surface markers are genetically determined and are different in every person. They are responsible for transplant rejection.

C

C

C

C

C

Transplant rejection is a process in which a transplant recipient's immune system attacks the transplanted organ or tissue.


Objectives

Blood types and transfusion compatibility are a matter of interaction between plasma antibodiesand surface antigens in the erythrocytes.

The plasma membrane of the erythrocytes contains glycoproteins on the outer surface that can act as antigens. That means that they can interact with the corresponding antibodies.

Type A

ABO Blood Group

Type B

Type A B

Type O


Objectives

Plasma contains antibodies against surface antigens that are not present on self cells. That is why foreign tissues are rejected by the immune system.

Plasma contains antibodies against surface antigens that are not present on self red blood cells.

Neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies

Anti-A and anti-B antibodies

Anti-B antibodies

Anti-A antibodies


Objectives

When antibodies attack, the foreign cells agglutinate (clump together). This process is called agglutination.

+ Ab

The antigens that determine the blood types are called agglutinogens, and the corresponding antibodies are called agglutinins


Objectives

ABO Blood Typing

Control

Blood Type

A

B

AB

O


Objectives

The Rh Group

The Rh blood group is named for the rhesus monkey, the animal in which the Rh antigens were discovered in 1940.

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

D

This group include numerous antigens (C, D, E). Antigen D is by far the most reactive and it is used for Rh typing.

Rh +

Rh -


Objectives

Rh Blood Typing

Anti Rh

Control

Blood Type

Rh +

Rh -


Objectives

ABO and Rh Blood Typing

Control

Anti-A

Anti-B

Anti-D

Control

Anti-A

Anti-B

Anti-D

A-

AB-

AB+

A+

B-

O-

B+

O+


Objectives

Transfusion Reaction

The agglutinated RBCs lodge in smaller blood vessels and cut of the blood flow to vital organs.

Blood from

type A donor

Free hemoglobin can block the kidney tubules and produce death from acute renal failure within a week or so.

Type B

(anti-A)

recipient

Donor RBCs

agglutinated by

recipient plasma

Agglutinated RBCs

block small vessels


Objectives

Hemolytic Disease of Newborn

leaves

Rh- mother

Rh

antigen

Second

Rh+ fetus

Rh+ fetus

Uterus

Anti-D

antibody

Amniotic sac

and chorion

Placenta

(a) First pregnancy

(b) Between pregnancies

(c) Second pregnancy

  • Rh antibodies attack fetal blood causing severe anemia and toxic brain syndrome (Hemolytic Disease of the New Born).


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