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Modern history. Organization of the summer term PS (12 weeks) 17. 2. 2014 – 10. 5. 2014 Examinations (4 weeks) 12. 5. 2014 – 7. 6. 2014

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Modern history

Modernhistory


Modern history

Organizationof the summer termPS (12 weeks) 17. 2. 2014 – 10. 5. 2014Examinations (4 weeks) 12. 5. 2014 – 7. 6. 2014

Form of examinationWritten test. Obligatory attendance at workshops: 75 %In order to successfully graduate the course the students will also have to prepare presentations for each lecture in advance that will be presented at each lecture.


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Organizationof the summer termDates and themes of lectures1. February 18, 2014 : History of PR – till WW22. February 25, 2014: PR in a new millennium (definitions, principles)3. March 3, 2014: PR as a part of the communication4. March 11, 2014: Corporate identity 5. March 18, 2014: Internal PR 6. March 25, 2013: Crisis communication 7. April 1, 2014: CSR8. April 8, 2014: Social media9. April 15, 2014: PR tools (HR, media relations)10. April 22, 2014: PR, lobbying and sponsoring11. April 29, 2014: PR strategy, planning 12. May 6, 2014: Professional associations of PR, PR ethics


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Organization of the summer termDates and themes of workshops1. February 25, 2014: Understanding a brief2. March 11, 2014: PR plan + budget3. March 25, 2014: Press conferences4. April 8, 2014: Press release and press materials5. April 22, 2014: Social media6. May 6, 2014: Events


Modern history

Organization of the summer termDates and themes of workshops1. February 25, 2014: Understanding a brief2. March 11, 2014: PR plan + budget3. March 25, 2014: Press conferences4. April 8, 2014: Press release and press materials5. April 22, 2014: Social media6. May 6, 2014: Events


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1. February 18, 2014 : History of PR – till WW2

Presenters:

2. February 25, 2014: PR in a new millennium (definitions, principles)

Presenters:

3. March 3, 2014: PR as a part of the communication

Presenters:

4. March 11, 2014: Corporate identity

Presenters:

5. March 18, 2014: Internal PR

Presenters:

6. March 25, 2013: Crisis communication

Presenters:


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7. April 1, 2014: CSR

Presenters:

8. April 8, 2014: Social media

Presenters:

9. April 15, 2014: PR tools (HR, media relations)

Presenters:

10. April 22, 2014: PR, lobbying and sponsoring

Presenters:

11. April 29, 2014: PR strategy, planning

Presenters:

12. May 6, 2014: Professional associations of PR, PR ethics

Presenters:


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Lesson 2: Public relations in new millennium, theory, methodology. Resources of PR, definition of PR, principles of PR, role of PR in nowadays society, character of PR in todays society (agenda setting), controlled reputation in non-branded fields. Internal public, external public, unconscious and conscious public, influencers of public opinion, system relations and interest groups. Public opinion, target group, stakeholders. Means of dialog with public, publicity and medicalization of an issue, life cycle of news and trends, trends analysis, life cycle o fissues, proceedings in issue management, content analysis as a tool of strategic control of communication with public.


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Public relations - definition

Public relations: anemergingprofession, originated in late 19th centurywith rapid expansionthrough 20th century

Definition: 472 possibledefinitions - RexHarlow


Modern history

Public relations - definition

Many definitions since than, one of the useful is the definition set up by the Institute of Public Relations (IPR) in 1987:

Public Relations is the planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain goodwill and understanding between and organization and its publics.

PR activities are not automatic or effortless. They have to be established and maintained. The aim is not popularity or approval, but goodwill and understanding.

Public Relations is not just about promoting the organizations, PR work has to ensure that publics have an accurate view of the organization, even if they do not like what the it does (Revenue and Customers, IRS – they do not expect to be loved for their activities, but might hope to be respected or at least understood.


Modern history

Public relations - definition

More recently the Chartered Institute of Public Relations (CIPR) extended its definition to:

Public Relations practice is the discipline concerned with the reputation of organizations (products, services, individuals) with the aim of earning understanding and support.

Public Relations is about reputation: the result of what you do, what you say and what others say about you…


Modern history

Public relations - definition


Modern history

Public relations – definition

Public – what does it mean?

PRis not about dealing with „the public“ – there is not such thing as the public. Instead there are many different groups of people: consumers, suppliers, employees, trustees, members, political bodies, local residents…… all of them have different information needs and exert different demands on organizations. Understanding these differences is vital skill of PR.


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Public relations – definitionof PR by opponents

Definitions that most textbooks leave out are the definitions of PR by critics: PR = synonymous with propaganda, evidenced by a constant stream of abuses of public trust by corporate communicators…

  • PR = propaganda???

  • There is a very slight difference between propaganda and public relations.

  • Propaganda has an objective of influencing people to agree with a particular cause or belief.

  • Public relations on the other hand is maintaining image of a company.


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Public relations vs. advertising

1. Paid Space vs.Free Coverage

Advertising:The company pays for ad space. You know exactly when that ad will air or be published.

Public Relations:Your job is to get free publicity for the company. From conferences to press releases, you're focused on getting free media exposure for the company and its products/services…


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Public relations vs. advertising

2. CreativeControlvs No Control

Advertising:Since you're paying for the space, you have creative control on what goes into that ad.

Public Relations:You have no control over how the media presents your information, if they decide to use your info at all. They're not obligated to cover your event or publish your press release just because you sent something to them.


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Public relations vs. advertising


Modern history

Public relations vs. advertising

3. ShelfLife

Advertising:Since you pay for the space, you can run your ads over and over for as long as your budget allows. An ad generally has a longer shelf life than one press release.

Public Relations:You only submit a press release about a new product once. You only submit a press release about a news conference once. The PR exposure you receive is only circulated once. An editor won't publish your same press release three or four times in their magazine.


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Public relations vs. advertising

4. WiseConsumers

Advertising:Consumers know when they're reading an advertisement they're trying to be sold a product or service.

Public Relations:When someone reads a third-party article written about your product or views coverage of your event on TV, they're seeing something you didn't pay for with ad dollars and view it differently than they do paid advertising.

"Where we can generate some sort of third-party 'endorsement' by independent media sources, we can create great credibility for our clients' products or services," Flowers said.

"The consumer understands that we have paid to present our selling message to him or her, and unfortunately, the consumer often views our selling message very guardedly," Paul Flowers, president of Dallas-based Flowers & Partners, Inc., said. "After all, they know we are trying to sell them."


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Public relations vs. advertising

5. Creativityor Nose forNews

Advertising

In advertising, you get to exercise your creativity in creating new ad campaigns and materials.

Public Relations:In public relations, you have to have a nose for news and be able to generate buzz through that news.

You exercise your creativity, to an extent, in the way you search for new news to release to the media.


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Public relations vs. advertising

6. Target audience orHooked editor

Advertising:You're looking for your target audience and advertising accordingly. You wouldn't advertise a women's TV network in a male-oriented sports magazine.

Public Relations:You must have an angle and hook editors to get them to use info for an article, to run a press release or to cover your event.


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Public relations vs. advertising

7. In-house orOut on the Town

Advertising

If you're working at an ad agency, your main contacts are your co-workers and the agency's clients.

If you buy and plan ad space on behalf of the client, then you'll also interact with media sales people.

Public Relations:You interact with the media and develop a relationship with them. Your contact is not limited to in-house communications. You're in constant touch with your contacts at the print publications and broadcast media.


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Public relations vs. advertising

8. Limited orUnlimitedcontact

Advertising:Some industry pros have contact with the clients. Others like copywriters or graphic designers in the agency may not meet with the client at all.

Public Relations:Youare very visible to the media. PR pros aren't always called on for the good news.

If there was an accident at your company, you may have to give a statement or on-camera interview to journalists. You may represent your company as a spokesperson at an event. Or you may work within community relations to show your company is actively involved in good work and is committed to the city and its citizens.


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Public relations vs. advertising

9. Specialevents

Advertising:If your company sponsors an event, you wouldn't want to take out an ad giving yourself a pat on the back for being such a great company. This is where your PR department steps in.

Public Relations:If you're sponsoring an event, you can send out a press release and the media might pick it up. They may publish the information or cover the event.


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Public relations vs. advertising

10. Writing style

Advertising:Buy this product! Act now! Call today! Subscribefor the membership just now! These are all things you can say in an advertisement. You want to use those buzz words to motivate people to buy your product.

Public Relations:You're strictly writing in a no-nonsense news format. Any blatant commercial messages in your communications are disregarded by the media.


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Public relations x marketing

If public relations is concerned with driving awareness, building brand reputation and “the story,”

marketing is more explicitly concerned with “the sale” and the bottom line. The messaging may be similar, and sales are a component of PR, but the marketing department is most often concerned with tactics to drive immediate purchases like e-mail marketing, coupons and signage. Public relations is still very much focused on securing media coverage.


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Mainactivities in public relations

Public relations activity

Explanation

Example

Internal communication Communication with employees In house newsletter, suggestion boxes

Corporate PR

Communicating on behalf of the whole company, not goods or services

Annual reports, conferences, visual identity, images

Media relations

Communicating with journalists, editors from local, national, international and trade media (newspapers, magazines, radio, TV, web based com.)

Press releases, video news releases, press events

Business to business

Communication with other organizations (suppliers, retailers)

Exhibitions, trade fairs, newsletters

Public affairs

Communication with opinion formers (KOFs) – politicians, scientists

Presentations, private meetings, public speeches

CSR

Communicating with local community, representatives, headteachers…

Exhibitions, letters, meetings, sport activities, sponsorship


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Mainactivities in public relations

Public relations activity

Explanation

Example

Investor relations Communication fin. organis/indiv. Events, briefings, newsletter

Strategic communication

Analysis of the situation, problem and solution to further organ. goals

Researching, planning and executing a campaign to improve ethical reputation of organization

Issue management

Monitoring political, social, economic and technological environment

Effect of US economy and presidential campaign on OK organization

Crisis management

Communicating clear messages in fast changing situation/emergency

Dealing with media after major rail crash on behalf of police, hospital…

Copywriting

Writing for different audiences to high standards of literacy

Press releases, newsletter, web pages, annual reports

Publication mgmt.

Overseeing print/media processes, oftenusing new technology

Leaflets, internal magazines, websites

Events managements, exhibitions

Organization of complex events, exhibitions

Annual conferences, press launch, trade shows


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PR principles

Target Information

Using a press release distribution service can cost money and make the process of getting information out to the public an expensive proposition. Prior to releasing information, target the audiences that you feel would have the greatest interest in your press release or marketing data.

Photographs

A well-written press release can help the public understand the point you are trying to make. Including a pertinent picture with your press release can give the public a visual image that will either add emphasis to your message, or clarify any potential confusion that your message may cause.

Media Relations

A public relations professional's best allies are journalists. Good media relations will not only get your press releases printed in spots where the public will see them, they can also result in personal interviews that will gain your company even more exposure.

.


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PR principles

Tools

Understand all of the public relations tools at your disposal and know how to use them. Press releases, speeches, personal interviews, seminars, web broadcasts and direct mail pieces are just some of the tools a public relations professional can use to reach the target audience.

Timing

Some public relations pieces can be scheduled for release well in advance. For example, the announcement of a new product is something a public relations professional can coordinate with the marketing group to get the timing right. But a public relations group should also be prepared to release important information on a moment's notice to coincide with a scandal or corporate emergency.


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PR principles

Availability

Reporters cannot confirm information in time to make print deadlines if you are not available at all times. Availability is critical for a public relations professional, and that means giving all of your contact information to the media and remaining on call at all times.

Stay Active

Your company should not wait for moments to present public relations materials. You should remain active in finding new ways to get information to the consumer or media. Make yourself available for speeches and seminars, and become an active member in professional and civic organizations.

Fact Checking

Never release information until it has been thoroughly checked for accuracy. Develop a fact-checking system for press releases and all public relations materials that will get the information to all pertinent parties to sign off on before it is made public.


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PR principles

Deceit

Never deceive the public with any information you release. A lie will be uncovered and the resulting fallout from deceit can be worse than the issue you were trying to cover up. Present the facts in a way that sheds as much positive light on your company as possible.

Contact Information

Every piece of public relations material that comes from your company should have contact information that includes a contact name, phone number, email address and mailing address. Give the public a chance to follow up on the information you released and the media a chance to present further information if they find the story interesting.


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PR theory

  • I. Theories of Relationships

  • Systems theory: evaluates relationships and structure as they relate to the whole.

  • Situational theory: maintains that situations define relationships.

  • II. Theories of Cognition and Behavior

  • Social exchange theory: predicts behavior of groups and individuals and is based on perceived rewards and costs.

  • Diffusion theory: suggests that people adopt an important idea or innovation after going through five discrete steps: awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, and adoption.

  • Social learning theory: states that people use information processing to explain and predict behavior.

  • III. Theories of Mass Communication

  • Uses and gratifications theory: states that people are active users of media and select media based on its gratification for them.

  • Framing theory: suggests that individuals use preexisting interpretations

  • to make sense of information and events.

  • Agenda setting theory: suggests that media content that people read, see, and listen to set the agendas for society’s discussion and interaction.

  • IV. Approaches to Conflict Resolution: Nine strategies: contention; cooperation; accommodation; avoidance; unconditional constructive; compromise; principled;

  • win-win or no deal; mediated.


Modern history

PR theory

1. Contention. Involves one party forcing its position on another.

2. Cooperation. Both parties work together to reach a mutually beneficial solution.

3. Accommodation. One party partially yields on its position and lowers its aspirations.

4. Avoidance. One or both parties leave the conflict either physically or psychologically.

5. Unconditional Constructive. The organization reconciles the strategic interests of

both the organization and its publics, whether the public follows guidelines or not,

even if the other party to the conflict does not reciprocate.

6. Compromise. An alternative agreement that stands part way between the parties’

preferredpositions.

7. Principled. Both parties hold to higher ethics that cannot be compromised.

8. Win-Win or No Deal. Both parties hold off on any agreement until they are ready

for the deal to be struck.

9. Mediated. Involves use of an outside disinterested party.

http://www.slideshare.net/Brett509/public-relations-theory-537389


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