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MARKET RESEARCH Secondary Internal data. Reservations Sales Mix Databases Enquires Turnaways. MARKET RESEARCH Secondary External data. Government agencies. The WWW. Associations Chambers of Commerce Research companies and consultants Universities and colleges Specialized publications.

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Market research secondary internal data
MARKET RESEARCH SecondaryInternal data

  • Reservations

  • Sales Mix

  • Databases

  • Enquires

  • Turnaways

Market research secondary external data
MARKET RESEARCH SecondaryExternal data

  • Government agencies.

  • The WWW.

  • Associations

  • Chambers of Commerce

  • Research companies and consultants

  • Universities and colleges

  • Specialized publications

Market research secondary


May not be applicable

Potentially unreliable

Frequently outdated



  • Inexpensive

  • Easily accesible

  • Immediately available

Market research primary



Not as readily accessible

Not available immediately



  • Applicable and usable

  • Accurate & reliable

  • Up-to-date

Market research categories


Helps solve the problem.

Helps assess the opportunity

Associated with Primary research



  • Sheds more light on the problem or opportunity

  • Helps identify opportunities and problems

  • Associated with Secondary research

Market research types of data



Associated with exploratory methods

MARKET RESEARCH types of data


  • Numerical

  • Associated with conclusive methods

Market research quantitative primary research methods
MARKET RESEARCH quantitative primary research methods

  • Experiments

  • Mechanical observation

  • Survey

  • Simulations

Market research experiments

  • It is extremely expensive for an organization to introduce a new item and have it fail

  • By using experimental method, there is less risk of failure

  • They can be either simple or complex

Market research mechanical observation
MARKET RESEARCH mechanical observation

  • They produce very accurate, quantitative data

  • They do not provide any in-depth qualitative information

  • They discribe rather than explain customer behavior

Market research survey

  • It is the most popular research method in our industry

  • It is flexible and easy to use

  • It is both a science and a bit of an art

  • Types:

    a. Personal interviews

    b. Mail surveys

    c. Telephone surveys

    d. In-house, self-administered

    e. On-line

Market research personal interviews advantages
MARKET RESEARCH personal interviews advantages

  • Interviewers can provide fuller explanations

  • Interviewers can use additonal materials

  • They can gathered more complete answers by rephrasing questions

  • They can provide very timely data

Market research personal interviews disadvantages
MARKET RESEARCH personal interviews disadvantages

  • They are relatively expensive

  • There can be interviewer bias in questioning

  • Respondents may be reluctant to answer personal questions

  • Respondents may not answer in a relaxed way

  • The time of the interview may inconvenience the respondent

Market research mail surveys advantages
MARKET RESEARCH mail surveys advantages

  • They are inexpensive if the response rate is high

  • There is no interviewer bias

  • There is a consistency in the questions and responses

  • They can survey a large number of respondents

  • They can reach every respondent by mail

  • Respondents can remain anonymous

  • Respondents can choose when to answer.

Market research mail surveys disadvantages
MARKET RESEARCH mail surveys disadvantages

  • Impersonal nature

  • Relatively low response rate

  • They are commonly considered by respondents as advertising and junk mail

Market research thwarting mail surveys drawbacks
MARKET RESEARCH thwarting mail surveys drawbacks

  • Use highly personalized approaches

  • Follow up several times after the initial request

  • Promise respondents something for completing the questionnaire

  • Use accurate and up-to-date mailing lists

  • Avoid lengthy questionnaries

  • Provide respondents with a postage-paid preaddressed envelope

Market research telephone surveys


Obstrusive for some people. Invasion of privacy

Not as personal as the personal interview

Expensive if long-distance calls are needed

MARKET RESEARCH telephone surveys


  • Flexible

  • Quick

  • Inexpensive if local calls are needed

  • High responses rates with good contact lists and trained interviewers

Market research in house self administered
MARKET RESEARCH in-house self-administered

  • They are provided for customers to complete while they are in the premises.

  • They extremely useful in determining statistaction levels with the services, facilities and equipment.

  • On the other hand they generate a low response rate.

  • The organization must do all it can to motivate customers to fill out these questionnaires

Market research on line

  • Many hospitality and Travel companies have placed HTLM questionnaires on their web sites

  • As it is a very recent approach, experts do not have conclusive guidelines on the strengths and weaknesses of on-line research

  • There is a growing potential of reaching a large and growing audience of people on-line

Market research questionnaire design 1
MARKET RESEARCH questionnaire design 1

  • A printed form that hosts the questions and provides space for answers is required


    1. Keep it as short as possible

    2. Individual questions must be short and to the point

Market research questionnaire design 2
MARKET RESEARCH questionnaire design 2


    1. Include a date

    2. Place personal questions at the end

    3. Provide instructions on how the interviewer or respondent should answer

    4. If appropiate, supply “don´t know” or “no opinion” options

Market research wording of questions
MARKET RESEARCH wording of questions


    1. Ask only one question in each question

    2. Be as specific as possible

    3. Avoid technical terms

    4. Use words whose meanings are clear

    5. Make sure there are no overlaps in possible responses

Market research simulation

  • Computers are used to simulate marketing situations by creating a mathematical model

  • The model can be used to predict sales volumes, customer counts, or any other varialble

Market research qprms focus groups

  • The researcher directs questions to a small group of people (8/11)

  • The researcher draws out a specific subject and invites a dicussion about them

  • The researcher observes the people´s behavior, refocuses the discussion, summarize the opinions, etc.

Market research qprms fgs advantages disadvantages


They only produce qualitative information which is not representative

It may not accurately represent the opinions, attitudes, perceptions.

If we need numerical data we need another method

MARKET RESEARCH QPRMs Fgs advantages & disadvantages


  • They provide in-depth understanding of customer´s OAPB

  • They probe further than in one-on-one personal interview

  • It is very convenient to explore the position of certain companies and destinations

Market research qprms individual depth interviews idi
MARKET RESEARCH QPRMS individual depth interviews IDI

  • They are similar to the focus group, but involves just one interviewer and one interviewee

  • They last between 45 minutes and one hour

  • The researcher asks many questions and probes for additional elaboration after the subject answers

Market research qprms idi advantages disadvantages




If we need numerical data we need another method

MARKET RESEARCH QPRMS IDI advantages & disadvantages


  • Better than Fgs when the topic is confidential or sensitive

  • Better than Fgs when logistical problems make focus groups impractical

Market research qprms human observation
MARKET RESEARCH QPRMs human observation

  • It is about watching and noting how customers behave

  • It is a great technique for evaluating competitors

  • It is relatively inexpesnsive and provides very rich information

Market research qprms case studies

  • They provide information from one or more situations that are similar to the organization´s problem

  • They are done in the H&T industry when an organization is investigating the addition of new services