Primary Sources. Diffusion of Innovations Fifth Edition"Everett M. Rogers, 2003.Managing Transitions 2nd Edition: Making the Most of Change"William Bridges, 2003.Balanced Leadership School Leadership that Works"Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL), 2006.Profession
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1. 2008 MiBLSi State Conference Managing Change and Transitions How to successfully get past what we’ve always done.
2. Primary Sources “Diffusion of Innovations – Fifth Edition”
Everett M. Rogers, 2003.
“Managing Transitions – 2nd Edition: Making the Most of Change”
William Bridges, 2003.
Balanced Leadership “School Leadership that Works”
Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL), 2006.
“Professional Learning Communities at Work: Best Practices for Enhancing Student Achievement”
Richard DuFour & Robert Eaker, 1998.
3. What changes and initiatives have you experienced during your careers in education?
4. Changes and Innovations (off the top of my head) Brain-based Research
Dimensions of Learning
Positive Behavior Support
The excellence movement
GLCEs and High School requirements
Response to Intervention
The restructuring movement
Data-based decision making
Now pick one that you have been involved in. Either one in which you championed, were asked to lead, were a participant in, etc. Write it down. Now write down if it Keep track of the things you hear and see this morning that fit your change or initiative. At the end we will check in to see how it faired.Now pick one that you have been involved in. Either one in which you championed, were asked to lead, were a participant in, etc. Write it down. Now write down if it Keep track of the things you hear and see this morning that fit your change or initiative. At the end we will check in to see how it faired.
5. Reasons for failure The change moved too fast
The change lacked strong principal leadership
The change was too big
The change was top-down without buy-in from the staff
Gains were celebrated too soon – urgency was lost
Schools were unwilling to change
Leaders failed to develop a critical level of support The change moved too slow
The change relied too heavily on a strong principal
The change was too small
The change was bottom-up without the support of central admin.
Gains were not celebrated and momentum was lost
Schools took on every change that came along
Leaders mistakenly insisted on overwhelming support
6. 18 month cycle of interventions18 month cycle of interventions
7. A Brief Outline for Today Part 1(The facts)
Change is a way of life
Change is hard
Not all change if for the better
Not all changes are possible
Most changes have unintended consequences
Part 2 (The Good News)
There is a predictability to change
In terms of process
In terms of people’s response
There are things you can do
To increase the likelihood of success
To increase rate of adoption
To increase sustainability
8. Change is Hard! “Faced with the choice between changing one’s mind and proving that there is no need to do so, almost everybody gets busy on the proof.”
John Kenneth Galbraith, American Economist
9. Activity- Change is Hard! Scurvy and the British Navy
10. Processing Question Why do you think it took so long for a change that clearly produced desirable outcomes to become a way of doing business? The use of data – teachers are case history peopleThe use of data – teachers are case history people
11. A little closer to home The are numerous varied schools across the country who are being extremely successful substantially improving the learning of all of their students (especially the at-risk populations).
These schools have all made similar substantive changes in the way they do business.
Leaders in these buildings have succeeded because of an intense and unrelenting focus.
Why aren’t more schools doing the same things to be successful?
12. Providing a Frame of Reference Select a change initiative that you either believe should be done or you are already in the process of implementing.
As you hear information about managing changes, think about the initiative you have selected and the factors that made it successful or unsuccessful.
13. Not all change is beneficial Any given change or initiative might
focus on the wrong thing
propose practices that are inefficient or ineffective
14. Example from the world of special education services Intervention Eff. Size
Match Instruction with
aud/vis strengths +.03
Focus on right brain-
left brain processing +.04
Instruction based on
cultural learning sty. +.00 Intervention Eff. Size
and prob. Solving +.70 – 1.50
and graphing +1.00
15. Is your change Necessary?
16. Not all change is possible Any given change or initiative might
not be supported/communicated/held accountable to results
be one more in a series or combination of initiatives (Christmas Tree Schools)
17. Not all change is possible. “Changes of any sort – even though they may be justified in economic or technological terms – finally succeed or fail on the basis of whether the people affected do things differently.”
18. Does your change Have commitment from leadership?
Have the resources (or at least the potential for the resources) to be successful?
19. A Review of Leadership Decision Rules (before implementation) Is there a need? (based on data)
Is there evidence of effectiveness? (also based on data)
Do you have commitment?
Do you have the infrastructure and resources?
20. Unintended consequences Technology
Snowmobiles, computers, and cell phones
Tortillas, eggs, and global warming
21. Unintended Consequences and what to do Before committing to an initiative, do your homework
Invite multiple perspectives
Try to think in terms of secondary impacts
Perform cost-benefit analyses
Determine proven effectiveness for your specific needs
Once decided, move decisively but realize that some consequences will be unforeseen. Be flexible.
22. Looking ahead What are the possible “unintended consequences” of your change initiative?
23. The Good News There is reliable predictability to change.
24. Predictability in the Change Process Stages of Innovation-Decision (Rogers, 2003) People who are a part of the change need …
25. Knowledge Individuals consciously or unconsciously avoid messages that are in conflict with their existing predispositions…
(Individuals) seldom expose themselves to messages about an innovation unless they first feel a need for the innovation … perceive it as relevant and consistent with their attitudes and beliefs.
Selective Perception How many of you will admit to not reading certain columnists while always reading others?
How many of you will admit to avoiding opening mail that is perceived as not having relevance?
What beliefs exist in your building/district/workplace that would be hard to penetrate because people are involved in selective exposure and selective perception?How many of you will admit to not reading certain columnists while always reading others?
How many of you will admit to avoiding opening mail that is perceived as not having relevance?
What beliefs exist in your building/district/workplace that would be hard to penetrate because people are involved in selective exposure and selective perception?
26. Knowledge Awareness Knowledge – information that an innovation exists
How-to Knowledge – information necessary to use an innovation properly
Principles Knowledge – information dealing with the functioning principles underlying how a principle works
27. Knowledge “Change agents could perhaps play their most distinctive and important role in the innovation-decision process if they concentrate on the how-to knowledge.”
“Consideration of a new idea does not go beyond the knowledge function if an individual does not define the information as relevant to his or her situation, or if sufficient knowledge in not obtained…”
28. Persuasion At the persuasion stage, people seek messages that reduce uncertainty about an innovation’s expected consequences. (Rogers, 2003)
Sometimes it is necessary for change agents to create a demand for the change by creating a discontent with the current reality and developing a vision of a more attractive reality. (McREL, 2006) Do you need to create a demand for your change?Do you need to create a demand for your change?
29. Decision Individual or group engages in activities that lead to a choice to adopt or reject an innovation
Most individuals do not adopt an innovation without first trying it out on a probationary basis to determine its usefulness in their own situation.
A demonstration or pilot site can be quite effective in speeding up the diffusion process.
30. Implementation Involves overt behavior change as the new idea is actually put into practice
Reinvention (changes or modifications to an innovation by the users)
Faster rate of adoption
Higher degree of sustainability
Loss of integrity of implementation
Could lead to ineffective practice in terms of outcomes
31. Confirmation Humans often seek to get rid of the discomfort of change by confirming their new direction or behavior.
Data can serve as the evidence that the change was either positive or negative.
32. In terms of your change initiative, have you considered … The knowledge people will need to have and how many ways and times they will need to hear it.
Who will need persuasion
What is needed to support a decision to try
What possibilities you can create for trial runs or pilot sites
How much reinvention is allowed
The kinds of information needed to confirm the effectiveness of the change
33. Predictability in the people: People and Their Responses to Change
The Early Adopters
The Early Majority
The Late Majority
34. Categories by Rate of Adoption Everett M. Rogers
35. Brief Characteristics by Innovator Type Innovators – venturesome, tend to be out of the local circle of peer networks, able to work with a high degree of uncertainty about an innovation at the time they adopt
Early Adopters – considered by many to be the “person to check with”, respected by peers, role model, maintains central position in the communication networks of the system, listen to and seeks out research and experts.
36. Brief Characteristics by Innovator Type Early Majority – deliberate, interact frequently with their peers but seldom hold positions of opinion leadership.
Late Majority – skeptical, pressure of peers is necessary to motivate adoption, system norms must favor an innovation before they are convinced to adopt.
Laggards – traditional, tend to possess almost no leadership opinion, point of reference is what has been done in the past, tend to be suspicious of changes and change agents.
37. Things to keep in mind Categories are specific to the innovation being initiated. People can change categories for different innovations.
Innovators and Early Adopters tend to seek out experts and listen to research.
The early and late majority look to the early adopters, and not the experts, for their reasons to change.
38. Magnitude of change A change is defined by the implications it has for the people expected to implement it and/or those who will be impacted by it.
The same change can be perceived differently by different stakeholders!
Leaders sometimes underestimate the impact and reaction to change or do not manage the transitions well.
39. Order of Change (McREL, 2006) First order changes are changes that are perceived to be a continuation and refinement of existing beliefs and practices. They can be implemented with current knowledge, skills, and resources.
Second order changes are changes that are perceived to be a significant break from current practices and will require new knowledge, skills, beliefs and/or resources.
40. First or Second Order? Based on the change you have selected, can you identify people for which your particular change would be…
A first-order change (i.e. an extension of what they already do, are, believe in …)? Why?
A second-order change (i.e. a significant break from what they already do, are, believe in …)? Why?
41. Predictability in the Transition Process: The Three Phases To start, you must end
A time of uncertainty is to be expected and embraced.
The new beginning is a time to establish focus and a new sense of purpose.
42. Three Phases of Transition William Bridges
43. Understanding Transitions
“I have learned how self-defeating it is to try to overcome people’s resistance to change without addressing the threat the change poses to their world.”
Change is situational, transition is psychological. It is the transitions that will do you in.”
44. The First Phase – The Ending Letting go of the old ways and the old identity people had
45. How to get people to let go Identify who is losing what
Accept the reality and importance of the subjective losses
Don’t be surprised at overreaction
Acknowledge the losses openly and sympathetically
46. How to get people to let go
Expect and accept the signs of grieving
Compensate for the losses
Give people information repeatedly
Define what is over and what isn’t
47. How to get people to let go Mark the endings
Treat the past with respect
Let people take a piece of the old way with them
Show how endings ensure the continuity of what really matters
48. How to get people to let go Finally, whatever must end, must end! Don’t drag it out. Plan carefully, allow time for healing, but make sure that the action is large enough to get the job done!
49. Considering your initiative Did you consider the endings people will need to make?
Was there a plan to handle that?
Have you communicated clearly and repeatedly what is over and what is beginning?
50. Keys to Responding to Resisters (DuFour & Eaker, 1998) Assume good intentions
Identify specific behaviors essential to the success of the initiative
Focus on behavior, not attitude. Monitor behavior.
Acknowledge and celebrate small victories
Confront incongruent behavior with specific concerns and communicate logical consequences.
51. Behavior – Attitude Interaction There is a large literature base demonstrating that attitudes follow behavior. People accept new beliefs as a result of changing their behavior.
Pfeffer and Sutton
52. Behavior – Attitude Interaction Attitudes in this world are not changed abstractly … attitudes are partly the result of working, attitudes are partly the result of action. You do not fold your hands and wait for attitude to change by itself.
53. The Second Phase – The Neutral Zone The psychological no-man’s land between the old reality and the new one
54. Dangers of the Neutral Zone Anxiety rises and motivation falls
Old weaknesses reemerge with a vengeance
People are overloaded and get mixed signals.
People become polarized (poorly managed, this can lead to terminal chaos)
Organization is vulnerable to attack from the outside and sabotage within
55. Helping people through the Neutral Zone Normalize
Create temporary systems
Strengthen communications and relationships
Use the time creatively (leaders should model this – start with yourself!)
56. The Third Phase – Launching a New Beginning A start can and should be carefully planned. Starts take place on a schedule as a result of decisions
The Four P’s
57. The Four P’s Purpose
Clarify and communicate
Give them a vision
This is not a plan for the change but a plan for the transition (should be detailed, person-oriented, and step-by-step)
Integrate and show people how they fit into the new scheme
58. Be Very Clear in Your Direction
If you cry, “Forward,” you must make it clear the direction in which to go. Don’t you see that if you fail to do that and simply call out the word to a monk and a revolutionary, they will go in precisely the opposite directions.
Anton Chekhov, Russian Writer
59. Reinforce the New Beginning Rule 1 – Be consistent
Rule 2 – Ensure quick successes
Rule 3 – Symbolize the new identity
Rule 4 – Celebrate the success
60. Some final quotes for thought If you have always done it that way, it is probably wrong.
Charles Kettering, American Inventor
Where we all think alike, no one thinks very much.
Walter Lippmann, American Journalist
Beginnings are always messy.
John Galsworthy, British Novelist