Visual class summary adventure and outdoor programming from its roots to my application
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Visual Class Summary Adventure and Outdoor Programming: From its Roots to My Application. Brandon Bertelsen. What are all these TLAs in AOP?.

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Visual class summary adventure and outdoor programming from its roots to my application

Visual Class SummaryAdventure and Outdoor Programming: From its Roots to My Application

Brandon Bertelsen


What are all these tlas in aop

What are all these TLAs in AOP?

TLA is a three letter acronym, ironic I know. I learned about TLAs in my WFR, Wilderness First Responder. Take a WFR course if you are looking for the mother load of TLAs. Here are a few relevant TLAs.


Visual class summary adventure and outdoor programming from its roots to my application

AOP

  • Adventure and Outdoor Programs

  • This is my emphasis in PRT

  • This presentation is a visual summary of my first AOP class


Visual class summary adventure and outdoor programming from its roots to my application

PRT

  • Parks, Recreation, and Tourism

  • This is my major

  • The department of PRT is in the College of Health

  • So PRT-AOP is my major and emphasis at the University of Utah


Visual class summary adventure and outdoor programming from its roots to my application

OAE

  • Outdoor Adventure Education

  • This is a relatively new field which is what AOP, experiential education and Adventure and Outdoor Programs is all about

  • This leads me to the Origins of OAE


Additional useful definitions

Additional Useful Definitions

  • But first I should define two other things:

  • ExperientialEducation: the process of learning and teaching through non-lecture experiences. This includes hands on practice and application of knowledge.

  • Adventure: when the outcome is uncertain or unknown, when growing takes place, when one is outside of their comfort zone, and when risk and fear come into play.


Origins of oae

Origins of OAE

  • In the last hundred years or so outdoor adventure has become a field of education

  • Examples of original OAE organizations include:

    • Boy Scouts of America

    • National Outdoor Leadership School

    • Outward Bound

  • The rise of the outdoor industry, parks,

    recreation, and tourism led to the

    field of outdoor education as well


F ounders and historical icons of oae

Founders and historical icons of OAE

There are a handful of individuals who are responsible for the formation of the field of OAE. I will not cover everyone who contributed because that list is much too large. But in order for one to grow and progress in a field they must now their roots and where it all began. I know I will continually look back upon the following people for inspiration and reference in the future.


Kurt hahn 1886 1974

Kurt Hahn (1886-1974)

  • Hahn was a key figure in the development of experiential education, which I defined earlier on slide 6

  • “There is more to us than we know. If we can be made to see it, perhaps for the rest of our lives we will be unwilling to settle for less.” –Kurt Hahn

  • In 1941 Hahn used his experiential education ideas from his German Salem School and helped found Outward Bound to give young sailors the skills necessary to survive at sea

  • Today Outward Bound is “a system of diverse schools dedicated to helping people learn through challenging experiences so they can grow individually and, in the process, become more active in the communities where they live and work.” (http://www.outwardbound.org/about-outward-bound/outward-bound-today/)

  • Courses range from weeklong rafting to month-long backpacking


Paul petzoldt 1908 1999

Paul Petzoldt (1908-1999)

  • From early on in life Petzoldt was adventuring outdoors

  • He began working for the Colorado Outward Bound School and contributed a lot to its early development

  • He had always dreamed of his own outdoor education school

  • When his proposal for a Wyoming Outward Bound School was shot down he created the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) based in Lander, Wyoming

  • NOLS provides one the ultimate OAE experience through usually month long expeditions in the backcountry

  • Petzoldt’s famous 6 P’s were: Proper Preparation Prevents Piss Poor Performance (I probably quoted this a little too often in class)

  • Petzoldt eventually left NOLS and started the Wilderness Education Association (WEA) a travelling annual conference on the vast topic of the outdoor recreation industry


Tangent my wea experience

Tangent: my WEA experience

  • In February of 2014 for a class assignment I attended the WEA held here in Salt Lake City, UT

  • With three classmates I gave a presentation called the Backcountry Kitchen: How to Eat Well In the Outdoors

  • Through presentation, demonstration, and engaging discussions we taught how to balance the five key parameters to eating well in the outdoors

  • The key parameters are nutritional value, simplicity, variety, weight, and taste


Theories and models related to oae

Theories and Models related to OAE

  • From Hahn’s Outward Bound came the Outward Bound Process Model:


Kolb s experiential learning cycle

Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle

Concrete

Experience

Reflection Observation

Active

Experimentation

Abstract

Conceptualization


Example of kolb s experiential learning cycle

Example of Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle

  • Concrete Experience: a student sets up a tarp shelter for a kitchen that gets torn down in the wind

  • Reflective Observation: the student thinks about what they did wrong and watches another do it right

  • Abstract Conceptualization: the student forms a plan to make a new shelter that will withstand the wind and provide protection to cook under

  • Active Experimentation: the student puts his plan into action and builds a new shelter based off of his thinking and watching another

  • The process may repeat over and over not only for failures but after successes as well


Constructivism

Constructivism

  • This one is the most interesting theory to me because it can relate to EVERYONE at ANYTIME

  • Knowledge is built off of past knowledge and experiences

  • No one is ever a blank slate, everyone brings something to the table

  • The zone of proximal development also plays a role in this theory. For example, when someone in the area who is knowledgeable will teach one who is less knowledgeable

  • Trial and error results in the construction of new knowledge

  • As an instructor I plan to be conscious of constructivism to interact with participants at their individual level


Theory of planned behavior

Theory of Planned Behavior

  • My group taught the class this model

  • It is the influence of a person’s intention to perform a behavior

  • This can be used as a predictor of behavior in my future OAE settings


Attention restoration theory

Attention Restoration Theory

  • We also taught the class this by having them stare at photos of the natural world in the hallway for a minute and processed it by discuss any change in our emotions

  • This theory says that one’s attentional capacity can be restored through nature experiences

  • One’s willpower can become fatigued over time especially in a modern society

  • Hard fascination: not restorative, no reflective though, e.g. watching a football game or a television show

  • Soft fascination: restorative, requires no effort to hold one’s attention, e.g. watching clouds, wildlife, or a sunset

  • A multiday backpacking trip is a powerful attention restoration experience, I believe it from experience


Self determination theory

Self Determination Theory

  • This a theory of motivation

  • Motivation comes socially and rationally as well as through purpose and development


Cognitive evaluation theory

Cognitive Evaluation Theory

  • This is a sub theory of the Self Determination Theory

  • It has three propositions that explain how consequences affect internal motivation

  • External events will impact intrinsic motivation for optimally challenging activities to the extent that they influence perceived competence

  • Events relevant to the behavior have three potential aspects, each with a significant function.

  • Personal events differ in their qualitative aspects and, like external events, can have different significances


Social cognitive theory

Social Cognitive Theory

  • This theory says that people do not learn new behaviors solely by trying them and succeeding or failing, but rather, the survival of humanity is dependent upon the replication of the actions of others

  • Humans judge and that is what allows us to survive

  • I judge that food, water, and shelter will keep me alive so I make sure I have them

  • I judge that when I press a key my desired letter will appear on the screen

  • Life is made up of judgments


Maslow hierarchy of needs

Maslow Hierarchy of Needs


Example of the hierarchy of needs

Example of the Hierarchy of Needs

  • As lower needs are met than higher items of the hierarchy become needs

  • Different items are met at different times requiring a reassessment of which needs are needed (haha)

  • For example if my physiological and safety needs are met than I feel the need are love and belonging from friends and family. Until those needs are met I cannot build esteem and self-actualization

  • Awareness of participant’s needs becomes very important when you are determining appropriate goals and objectives

  • If their safety, or even perceived safety is not met than they have no concern for esteem growth


Self efficacy

Self Efficacy

  • This means a belief in one’s ability to complete a task, alos known as confidence

  • My self efficacy, just like participants’, is effected in four ways

  • Mastery- when a student climbs their first 5.10 they become more confident

  • Vicarious Experience-when a student sees me tie a knot very slowly they may believe that they too can tie it

  • Social Persuasion-a student is encouraged by their trusted and respected peers to do a blind trust fall

  • Physiological and emotional status-pain and stress may make a student feel inadequate to backpack with the group


The theory of flow

The Theory of Flow

  • This one makes me excited to be in the field of OAE!

  • The state of flow can be reached when one finds the balance between challenge and ability

  • As OAE instructors we want to match participant challenge and ability the best we can so they have an optimal experience


Systems theory

Systems Theory

  • The Systems Theory is an ecological model of human development

  • The model shows different levels of our influence

  • The further from the center (the individual) the less influence they have and the more the influence comes from many sources

  • This is the “it depends” model

  • “It depends,” with proper support is almost all the time an acceptable answer in PRT-AOP


Communities of practice a pedagogy for outdoor education

Communities of Practice: A Pedagogy for Outdoor Education

  • Nate Millard presented this at WEA (see everything is interrelated!)

  • He defined communities of practice as efficient forms of education

  • He is a teacher and he turns his classroom into a community of practice

  • He give them a large vague project such as create an accessible resource for beginner skiers to enter the sport

  • This leads them into the community and actual doing real world research, events, and contacting

  • In the Fall semester of 2013 our Special Event Program Plan Portfolio was a communities of practice project

  • We had to plan and facilitate an event that had to do with Adventure and Outdoor Programs as well as diversity and race

  • Our result was a benefit for the local Boys and Girls Club in the form of ski lessons, a winter party, and a mass winter clothing donation


Group stages of development

Group Stages of Development


Group stages of development1

Group Stages of Development

  • As you might have imagined as a group spends more time together they develop

  • I have experienced this on my high school football team

  • I expected to experience this in our AOP core class but I don’t think we were close enough to make it to storming

  • Possibly while working in small groups such as our WEA groups or teaching and facilitation groups we went through more stages

  • I can apply this now to when I lead Outdoor Adventures trip and I will apply it down the road if I am a NOLS Instructor


Leaderships styles

Leaderships Styles

  • This combined with group stages of development will relate to the Conditional Outdoor Leadership Theory

  • There are three appropriate leadership style

  • Autocratic: the leader makes the decisions and convinces the group to follow

  • Democratic: the leader and the group share various decision making responsibilities

  • Abdicratic: the leader hands over decision making responsibility to the group, buts remains closely involved incase they need to interfere


Conditional outdoor leadership theory

Conditional Outdoor Leadership Theory

  • The group stages of development can be applied to an appropriate style of leading and concern for task v. relationship when leading an OAE course


Awareness wheel

Awareness Wheel

  • I find this extremely practical when communicating during an issue or conflict

  • We didn’t discuss this too much in class but it came from the NOLS Leadership Educator Notebook and like everything else in there, it is gold in the OAE field

DOING

THINKING

WANTING

ISSUE

SENSING/

DATA

FEELING


No more theories or models finally

No More Theories or Models…..Finally!

  • But everything else I will cover does relate back to at least one, usually many, of the models and theories I just covered

Who’s that stud?!


Effective outdoor leaders

Effective Outdoor Leaders

  • This what I will always be striving to be

  • So what makes one?

  • They are aware of and use OAE models and theories (can be found in the previous 33 slides)

  • They should know and apply much of which is in this visual class summary

  • They are passionate

  • They adapt to change


Bag o tricks outdoor leaders have a big one

Bag ‘o Tricks (Outdoor Leaders Have a Big One!)

  • These are the ones I have accumulated over the class

  • Nose Jousting

  • To All My Good Neighbors

  • Broken Blue Box Great Green Giant

  • Partner Hands Knock Off Balance

  • Pirates Crossing

  • Spider’s web

  • Blindfold Walk

  • Group Rope Shapes Blind

  • Hula-hoop Circle/Stargate

  • Partner Knot Untie

  • Animal Noises

  • Fruit Necking

  • Group Legged Race

  • Shrinking Island

  • Group Bragging/Sharing

  • Blind, Deaf, and Motioning Towards Team Goal


Types of adventure programs

Types of Adventure Programs

  • Recreational

  • Educational

  • Developmental

  • Therapeutic

  • It is crucial to be aware of what type of program you are running with forming goals and objectives and facilitating activities


Facilitation v teaching

Facilitation v. Teaching

  • Teaching is passing on knowledge from one person to another. It is directive, intentional, and has goals and objectives.

  • Facilitation is easing an understanding of the subject onto the learner. The experience, not the teacher, is the vessel of knowledge and the students make the connections and realizations themselves.

  • Facilitation is an effective form of teaching. Unfortunately not all teaching can be done through facilitation so as an instructor I will need to intentional sequence events so that when I cannot facilitate my way to a goal I can keep the students’ attention during other forms of learning.


Elements to a high quality experience

Elements to a High Quality Experience

  • The participant does the activity for its own sake, intrinsic, autotelic

  • The participant is competent at the activity

  • The participant is in a state of optimal arousal

  • The participant has a freedom of choices within the activity

  • These factors make me

    think of my most fun days

    skiing where I ski because I

    love to ski, I am very good at

    skiing, I am in a state of

    flow, and I have the opportunity

    to make choices skiing.


Risk and fear

Risk and Fear

  • Sources of fear are lack of control, personal inadequacies, personal skills, homeostasis, level of comfort, and program inadequacies.

  • Growth comes from overcoming challenges and challenges present risk and fear to the participant.

  • Too much fear can paralyze a participant as I have seen working at a high ropes course last summer

  • Too much perceived, not necessarily real, risk can cause a participant to choose not to do the activity.


My risk philosophy

My Risk Philosophy

  • “If you do not have a philosophy behind what you are doing then why are you doing it?”-Jeremy Jostad(he probably stole the quote)

  • My personal risk philosophy:Vitality in life is what we all seek. Adventure and education are major sources of this and risk plays a key factor in both. Levels of risk in these experiences are very individual and circumstantial and both perceived and real risk need to be present but manageable in order to bring the most vitality into one’s life.


The 6 generations of facilitation

The 6 Generations of Facilitation

  • I bet you were wondering if this was in here after the Facilitation v. Teaching slide

  • There are six main ways to facilitate a learning experience

  • Learning by doing, letting the experience speak for itself, the participants make the discovery

  • Learning by telling, the instructor tells the participants what they should get out of it

  • Learning through reflection, the instructor leads a debriefing of the experience


The 6 generations of facilitation con

The 6 Generations of Facilitation con.

  • Direction with reflection, the instructor directly frontloads the experiences

  • Reinforcement with reflection, isomorphically framing the experience using metaphors

  • Indirectly frontloading the experience, so the participant is unaware that they are being prepared

  • A revolutionary shift in facilitation occurred when frontloading was introduced, consciously giving much more power to facilitation in certain situations


Personal experience

Personal Experience!

  • My classmate Nazly and I taught six students in our class about backcountry stoves, the MSR Whisperlite model

  • Because of this class we knew lecturing would be very ineffective in this scenario, so we decided to facilitate an activity

  • We chose to use the 4th generation of facilitation

  • We started the class by telling them our goal was for them to safely be able to use a Whisperlite stove in the backcountry

  • We told them our objectives were to understand the stove systems and safety hazards as well as boil water

  • We debriefed the activity by checking for understanding


Forms of processing

Forms of Processing

  • Because four of the six generations of facilitation use processing/debriefing

  • Large group: there a lot of insights but some people may get lost

  • Drawing: there is a chance to attach meaning but some people may shy away from art

  • Dyads/pairs: this allows less vocal people to give more input but may not be very challenging if friends are paired

  • Fishbowls/circles: embraces listening and further reflection skills but speakers may become self conscious or competitive

  • Observers: this may be eye opening for the one student but there is less teamwork

  • Solos: this is personal and has no conflict but can be limiting to one’s ideas

  • Journal writing: can articulate ones thoughts but may be time consuming

  • Readings/quotes: motivational and tone setting but cannot always relates to each individual experience


Learning and teaching styles

Learning and Teaching Styles

  • Because we are each different and special in our own way, says all mothers


The 5 depths of learning

The 5 Depths of Learning

  • You know it or you don’t. That is not quite how learning goes, there are actually levels of how well you know something

  • You have memorized it

  • You comprehend it

  • You can apply it

  • You can generalize it, transfer it

  • You can systemize it, use its system

  • As an instructor I can use my checks for understandings to see which level of learning my participants have reached


Another personal experience

Another Personal Experience

  • This time as a trip leader!

  • I led an overnight winter camping snowshoe trip

  • I taught the participants during the pre-trip meeting that to enjoy the trip they must be warm, dry, and well fed and that applies to all parts of the trip

  • Some participants could never even remember this as I checked in throughout the trip

  • And some participants applied this to their preparation, traveling, and even sleeping! That was exciting


Communication

Communication

  • Yet another thing leaders should be good at

  • Communication: when information is exchanged conveying meaning and understanding between two or more people

  • Effective communication: occurs when the people receiving the information alter their performances or beliefs on the basis of what the senders meant to convey

  • Channels of communication: audio, visual, and tactile

  • Maybe I should double major in communications to ensure I am a good communicator!


Feedback

Feedback

  • Feedback is a key skill as an outdoor leader, both giving AND taking it

  • Feedback is two way communication

  • When I see an opportunity for feedback I try to be aware of if the topic is sensitive to the participant and if they are open to it

  • A compliment sandwich, Kirk calls it a shit sandwich, it helpful

  • Give a compliment

  • Give the CONSTRUCTIVE feedback (the shit)

  • Give another compliment


My personal experience with kelly robins

My personal experience with Kelly Robins

  • Kelly is a great outdoor leader

  • A key part of this is his communication and feedback skills

  • Kelly taught us self care, backcountry travel, and avalanche safety

  • Right from the start he shook everyone’s hand and learned our names establishing a good channel for communication

  • At the beginning of the day he had everyone say one piece of equipment they brought and used that to give feedback on self care


Developmental stages

Developmental Stages

  • “Everything will change except change itself. That and everyone dies.”-Wiseman Brandon Bertelsen

  • Youth <17, concrete learners, duality, black and white thinking, different family considerations, structure activities with boredom in mind, patience is key, understanding, peer interaction and opportunities for beginning abstract thinking are good

  • Emerging adults 18-30, physical prime, striving for independence, increased risk, conscious experimentation, logical, increase activity action and challenge, let experiences form identity

  • Older adults 31+, self directed, logical and situational thinkers, vastly different, less concerned with peer influence, the know their limits in activities, they usually want to be there, give them the opportunity to share their knowledge (constructivism), and their vitality may be in a rut.

  • Being conscious of developmental stages is very effective when it comes to planning an effective experience


Goals and objectives

Goals and Objectives

  • Yes I know, before this class I thought they were the same thing too

  • Both serve to direct teaching and learning with an intended purpose with expected results through a set foundation

  • Goals: are statements about general aims or purposes of education that are broad, long-range intended outcomes, and are used primarily in general program planning

  • Objectives: are brief, clear statements that describe the desired outcomes of instruction giving special attention to specific types of performances that students are expected to demonstrate

  • See slide 44 for my personal example of goals and objectives


Ultimate goal the meaning of our life career

ULTIMATE GOAL/THE MEANING OF (OUR) LIFE (CAREER):

  • As outdoor leaders our ultimate goal is for our participants to transfer what they learned to their home lives

  • We want the experiences we led them through to have a positive impact beyond their time with us

  • I am passionate about the positive effects of nature because I have experienced themand I believe I can help others experience them as well! AOP is the place to be!


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