Concept 3 biologically significant macromolecules
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Concept 3: Biologically Significant Macromolecules. Biology Standard 3.5 Section 2.3. Key Idea:. Complex macromolecules are made of repeating units. Monomer. Monomer. Monomer. Monomer. Polymer. Organic Molecules. Living things = organic Organic = contains CARBON

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Concept 3: Biologically Significant Macromolecules

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Concept 3 biologically significant macromolecules

Concept 3: Biologically Significant Macromolecules

Biology Standard 3.5

Section 2.3


Key idea

Key Idea:

Complex macromolecules are made of repeating units.

Monomer

Monomer

Monomer

Monomer

Polymer


Organic molecules

Organic Molecules

Living things = organic

Organic = contains CARBON

Carbon is special- can form up to FOUR bonds, and can bond with itself

H

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H


Carbon based molecules

Carbon-Based Molecules

  • Many carbon-based molecules are chains of small subunits called monomers.

  • Monomers strung together make up polymers.


Carbon based molecules1

Carbon-Based Molecules

  • Most molecules that make up living organisms can be classified as macromolecules.

    • Macro- meaning large, big, or long.

    • Molecule- comprised of multiple atoms.

  • All biologically significant macromolecules can be classified into four categories:

    • Carbohydrates

    • Lipids

    • Proteins

    • Nucleic acids


Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

  • Main Purpose = ENERGY

    • main source of fuel for cellular respiration

    • Starch = energy storage molecule in plants

    • Glycogen = energy storage molecule in animals

  • Additional Use = Structure/Support

    • Cellulose is used in plant cells (cell wall)


Carbohydrates1

Carbohydrates

  • Monomers = monosaccharides (Ex. Glucose)

  • Polymers = polysaccharides (Ex. starch or cellulose)


Carbohydrates2

Carbohydrates

  • Carbohydrates are initially synthesized by photosynthesis, or “production by light.”

  • When glucose is consumed, digestion breaks the bonds between the monomer units, making simple sugars that the body can absorb.

  • Eventually, sugars are absorbed by individual cells, and simple sugars are broken down through cellular respiration, resulting in ATP (the body’s energy “currency”).

  • Carbohydrates = 400 cal/g.


Lipids

Lipids

  • Main Function = Long Term Energy Storage

  • Other Functions = cushioning organs, insulating the body, hormones, cell membrane

  • Made of glycerols (heads) and fatty acids (tails)

Testosterone

Estrogen


Lipids1

Lipids

  • Have more C-H bonds than carbohydrates (more bonds = more energy released when bonds are broken during digestion)

  • This means fats contain more calories than carbohydrates.Lipid = 900 cal/g.

  • Monomer = Fatty Acid

  • Polymer = ex. cholesterol


Lipids2

Lipids

  • Saturated (all single bonds)

    • Unhealthy fats

    • Solid at room temperature (butter, dairy)

    • No “gaps” so they pack together tightly and can clog arteries

  • Unsaturated (monounsaturated = one double bond, polyunsaturated = two or more double bonds)

    • Healthier fats

    • Liquid at room temperature (vegetable oil)

    • Double bonds provide “gaps” so these fats slide past each other and do not clog arteries


Proteins

Proteins

  • Proteins are involved in almost every function of the human body.

  • When proteins are consumed, they are broken down into monomer units and recycled to suit the organism’s needs.

  • Proteins assemble and fold in different ways – STRUCTURE DETERMINES FUNCTION


Proteins1

Proteins

  • Proteins play a number of roles.

    • Transport proteins help move substances like oxygen throughout the body. (Can be embedded in cell membrane)

    • Structural proteins provide support, like keratin that forms hair or fingernails.

    • Hormone proteins carry out signaling around the body, like insulin regulating blood sugar.

    • Contractile proteins help control movement, like in muscle fibers.

    • Enzyme proteins work to accelerate the speed of chemical reactions.


Proteins2

Proteins

  • Monomer = amino acids

  • Polymer = polypeptides.


Proteins3

Proteins

  • About 20 different amino acids exist, 12 of which the human body can synthesize itself.

  • The others must be consumed from foods like beans, nuts, or meat.


Proteins4

Proteins

  • While proteins can be burned for energy, they represent a last resort.

  • Carbohydrates and lipids must both be exhausted before the body will use proteins for energy.

  • Proteins must first be converted to carbohydrates before they can be burned for energy.

  • Proteins = 400 cal/g. (same as carbs)


Proteins5

Proteins

  • While the instructions for building proteins are carried on DNA, proteins represent the finished structure, and carry out the functions of life.

  • Sometimes these functions can fail.

    • i.e. Sickle-cell anemia


Nucleic acids

Nucleic Acids

Main Purpose = carry genetic information

Polymers = DNA and RNA

Monomer = Nucleotide

Nucleotides are made of a sugar ring, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base (below).

DNA – ATCG

RNA – AUCG


Concept 3 biologically significant macromolecules

Outside

Carbohydrates

Picture

Lipids

Picture

Nucleic Acids

Picture

Proteins

Picture

Inside

Subunit = ?

Example = ?

Function in

the body = ?

Subunit = ?

Example = ?

Function in

the body = ?

Subunit = ?

Example = ?

Function in

the body = ?

Subunit = ?

Example = ?

Function in

the body = ?


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