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Atmospheric CO 2 & Temperature – what is normal? PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Atmospheric CO 2 & Temperature – what is normal?. Presented by Julie Brigham-Grette and Beth Caissie. July 2010. CO 2 and Temperature—What is Normal?. Concepts to Address before you begin Climate vs. Weather Greenhouse Gasses The Carbon Cycle Play the game?

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Atmospheric co 2 temperature what is normal

Atmospheric CO2 & Temperature –

what is normal?

Presented by

Julie Brigham-Grette and Beth Caissie

July 2010


Co 2 and temperature what is normal

CO2 and Temperature—What is Normal?

  • Concepts to Address before you begin

    • Climate vs. Weather

    • Greenhouse Gasses

    • The Carbon Cycle

      • Play the game?

      • Photosynthesis and Decomposition

  • Concepts to grasp During the Activity

    • How much of a change in CO2 concentration and other GHGs is natural?

    • What is the normal range of CO2 and temperature variability? How is normal defined in this context?

    • What is the relationship between CO2 and global temperatures?


Season change in the biosphere

Season Change in the Biosphere


Atmospheric co 2 temperature what is normal

What causes this change in annual Carbon dioxide?


Atmospheric co 2 temperature what is normal

http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/

Seasonal changes cause up/downs in CO2 in the atmosphere

Especially driven by Northern Hemisphere. Spring - photosynthesis drops CO2, Fall - decomposition causes increase in CO2


Atmospheric co 2 temperature what is normal

Monitoring of CO2 and other Greenhouse gases around the world

All get similar measurements

Why?


Http www esrl noaa gov gmd ccgg trends

http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/


Global view co2 http www esrl noaa gov gmd ccgg globalview co2 co2 intro html

Global View CO2 http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/globalview/co2/co2_intro.html


Atmospheric co 2 temperature what is normal

Thermal drilling on Quelccaya, 2003


Drilling in greenland

Drilling in Greenland

http://passporttoknowledge.com/polar-palooza/pp09a.php

Video podcast

from Polar Palooza


Atmospheric co 2 temperature what is normal

Matt Nolan, UAF

Fossil air!

Trapped in the ice; records past atmosphere

Summit Station, Greenland photo by Michael Morrison, GISP2 SMO, University of New Hampshire; NOAA Paleoslide SetCore: Eric Cravens, Assistant Curator, U.S. National Ice Core Laboratory;


Atmospheric co 2 temperature what is normal

Raynaud, 1992

Gases within bubbles = fossil atmospheric air


Atmospheric co 2 temperature what is normal

Firn-ice transition

• Depth of transition depends on surface

temperature and accumulation rate

• Camp Century, Greenland:

~68 m below ice sheet surface

• Vostok, Antarctica:

~100 m below ice sheet surface

Low precip. and cold = long time to make ice

High precip. and warm =short time to make ice


Atmospheric co 2 temperature what is normal

Analysis:

Defining amplitude, frequency, periodicity

Defining Normal?

Understanding the relationship between Greenhouse gases and temperature.

Classroom options:

Plot by hand on graph paper,

Plot on computer using Excel

Overlay Temperature on CO2

Instructions for Excel on website


Atmospheric co 2 temperature what is normal

wikipedia art


Atmospheric co 2 temperature what is normal

Oxygen (8 protons)

16O 17O 18O

99.8% 0.04% 0.2%

Hydrogen (1 proton)

1H 2H (Deuterium) 3H (tritium) 99.98% 0.016% (bombs)

So, can make 9 isotopic combinations of H2O,

e.g., 18 (1H216O) to 22 (2H218O)

“light water” “heavy water”

In paleoclimate studies…1H1H16O to 1H218O


Atmospheric co 2 temperature what is normal

General Equation:

18O = 18O/16O sample - 18O/16O standard x 1000

18O/16O standard

Expressed in per mille (0/00)

Negative values = lower ratios = isotopically lighter

(less 18O than 16O)

Positive values = higher ratios = isotopically heavier

(more 18O than 16O)


Atmospheric co 2 temperature what is normal

d18O isotopic depletion

-50

-40

-30

-20

Evaporation of more 16O

Ice Sheet

-10

0

ocean

In Sea In Ice

Glacials = enriched 18O depleted 18O

Interglacials = depleted 18O enriched 18O


Atmospheric co 2 temperature what is normal

dD isotopic depletion

depends on temp of source area,

Distance and processes during precipitation

Ice Sheet

ocean

Isotopic ratios are used to model temperature, at Vostok; empirically this is roughly:

Temperature (deg-C) = -55.5 + (δD + 440) / 6

http://eesc.columbia.edu/courses/ees/climate/labs/vostok/

See also http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/gctext/Inquiries/Inquiries_by_Unit/Unit_8a.htm


Atmospheric co 2 temperature what is normal

mixed sources for data


Atmospheric co 2 temperature what is normal

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/CarbonCycle/carbon_cycle4.html


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