Air pollutions and the frequency of respiratory and allergic manifestations in megacity.
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Air pollutions and the frequency of respiratory and allergic manifestations in megacity. 1 G.P.Orlova, 2 K.B. Fridman, 2 T.E.Lim, 1 S.V. Demidova. 1 Scientific Research Institute for Pulmonology I.P.Pavlov’s State Medical University ,

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1 scientific research institute for pulmonology i p pavlov s state medical university

Air pollutions and the frequency of respiratory and allergic manifestations in megacity.1 G.P.Orlova, 2K.B. Fridman, 2 T.E.Lim, 1 S.V. Demidova.

1 Scientific Research Institute for Pulmonology I.P.Pavlov’s State Medical University,

2 Federal State Institute of Public Health “Centre of Saint-Petersburg hygiene and epidemiology”.

Saint-Petersburg,

Russian Federation.


Background

Background

  • Airpollutants are the risk factors of pulmonary disease development.

  • There is no common opinion about definite pollutant priority in the development of various pulmonary diseases, which pathogenesis mechanisms differ by predominant type of inflammatory reaction (nonallergic or allergic inflammation).


Background1

Background

  • Chronic bronchitis (CB) primary morbidity of St-Petersburg adults has been increased steadily for the last five years.

  • The ratio of CB and asthma (A) common morbidity can indirectly reflect the ratio of nonallergic and allergic types of inflammatory process in lungs.


1 scientific research institute for pulmonology i p pavlov s state medical university

Step 1.Our previous study (2009) revealed that two thirds of St-Petersburg districts (1st group) were characterized by prevalence of CB over A morbidity (CB/A morbidity index was above 1,3), that corresponded to the mean city value, whereas this index was equal or less than 1,3 in other districts (2nd group) - almost equal morbidity of CB and A.

1st group

2nd group


1 scientific research institute for pulmonology i p pavlov s state medical university

The CB/A morbidity index was in 2003 – 2008 г. This trend was traced within last 9 years, since 1999 to 2007.


1 scientific research institute for pulmonology i p pavlov s state medical university

Annual concentration average of the basic polluting substances in limit permissible concentration portions (according to socially-hygienic monitoring)

benzapirene

NOx/ NO2

particulate matter

CO

formaldehyde


Step 2 aim of the study

Step 2.Aim of the study

  • to analyze the influence of air pollutions on the frequency of respiratory symptoms and allergic signs in adults in St-Petersburg.


Material and methods

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Questioned interrogationof the adult population

  • 194 adult population in the district of1 group

    • 174 females, 20 males

  • 243 adult population in the district of2 group

    • 202females,41males

  • age: from 25 to 55 yrs


Material and methods1

MATERIAL AND METHODS

  • The socially-hygienic monitoring data in % specimens with abnormal levels to limiting permissible concentration (LPC) of the particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx/NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon oxide (CO), hydrocarbons, phenol, formaldehyde, hydrochlorid in two regions of St-Petersburg were studied within last 7 years.


The levels of air pollution in st petersburg districts in lpc percentage

The levels of air pollution in St-Petersburg districts in LPC percentage.

phenol

* - p<0,05 between 1 и 2 groups

hydroclorid

NOx/ NO2 *

СО* *

PM

hydrocarbons


Frequency of respiratory symptoms and allergic signs

Frequency of respiratory symptoms and allergic signs


Frequency of allergic signs

Frequency of allergic signs


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • The ratio of CB and A common morbidity can reflect indirectly a ratio of nonallergic and allergic types of inflammatory process in lungs.

  • Third part of St-Petersburg districts was characterized by almost equal CB and А morbidity index while in other districts this parameter was above 1,3, that was corresponded to mean city values.

  • Carbon oxide and nitrogen oxides in combination with hydrochlorid, phenol assist the development of the atopic type of inflammatory process (such as asthma, allergic dermatitis, conjunctivitis, eczema), that can be caused by both the sensitizing pollutant properties and probably aggravate carbonic oxide action.


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