Nearby groups of galaxies
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Nearby groups of galaxies. J. Vennik, T õravere 21.06.2005. Introduction. Groups of galaxies (GG) provide sites in which: to study e nvironmental dependences of galaxy properties (field-groups-clusters); to study interactions btw. galaxies and hot/cold intra-group matter (IGM),

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Nearby groups of galaxies

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Nearby groups of galaxies

Nearby groups of galaxies

J. Vennik,Tõravere 21.06.2005


Introduction

Introduction

Groups of galaxies (GG) provide sites in which:

  • to study environmental dependences of galaxy properties (field-groups-clusters);

  • to study interactions btw. galaxies and hot/cold intra-group matter (IGM),

  • to trace large-scale structure (LSS) of the Universe.

    Outstanding questions regarding the groups:

  • are groups bound physical systems?

  • if bound, why have more of them merged, given their high density and short crossing time?

  • typical mass of the group and their contibution to mass density of Universe,

  • how is the evolution of galaxies different in groups nd clusters?

  • evolution of groups in the time.

    To this purpose: extensive, homogeneous catalogs are needed, representing

    hierarchy of bound (?) systems in local and distant Universe.


Group catalogs

Group catalogs

  • Local(many catalogs, selected either by FoF or hierarchical (dendrogram) algorithms)

  • UZC-SSRS2 (USGC)– Ramella et al. (2002)

  •  mlim=15.5, cz ≤ 12000 km/s, 4.69 str

  • FoF, δρ/ρ = 80

  • 1168 groups (ngal ≥ 3),

  • 411 groups (ngal ≥ 5),

  • 61 X-ray (RASSCALS) groups

    • Deep surveys (LCRS, 2dFGRS,SDSS, DPOSS, CNOC2, DEEP2, VIMOS)

  • Suitable for statistical studies

  • 2dFGRS: (1300 deg2, bj ≤ 19.45)

  • Merchan & Zandivares (2002)

  • Eke et al. (2004): 2PIGG: 7020 groups (ngal ≥ 4) / z ~ 0.11, σv ~ 260 km/s, 55% in groups/

  • Yang et al.(2005)

  • SDSS: (4000 deg2, r ≤ 17.77)


  • 2dfgrs gr oups luminosity function

    2dFGRS groups: Luminosity function

    • Schechter function:L*increases and faint-end slope (α) decreases with increasing group total mass


    2dfgrs gr oups star formation properties

    2dFGRS groups: Star-formation properties

    • 2 populations with very different on-going SFE exist;

    • relative ratios of 2 pop-s changes with environment (density);

    • pop. with high SFE [W0(Hα) > 4] appears weakly sensitive to environment except centers of rich clusters, where W0(Hα) is strongly depleted;

    • possible explanation - galaxy pre-processing in pairs/groups, at higher z could be responsible for observed trends at z ~ 0.


    2dfgrs gr oups mass to light ratio

    2dFGRS groups: Mass-to-light ratio

    • M/L ratio increases (i.e. SF efficiencydecreases) at larger group(halo) masses in the range L = 1011 - 1012 LO

    • Expected upturn in SFE at LG masses (1012 MO) is not yet reached;

    • (M/L)med[3 1011 LO] = 466 yields Ώm = 0.26 ± 0.3 in agreement with LCDM theory and CMB data.


    Nearby groups of galaxies

    • Possible evolutionary bottom-up scenario

      • at high z small groups could start forming in high-density regions; interactions (mergers, tidal interactions) take place and have sufficient time to modify galaxy properties - that is past pre-processing, responsible for today’s galaxy properties;

      • ~ 30% quiescent galaxies in the field could be fossile groups – end products of some compact groups (CGs), while having higher LX/Lvisratio, suggesting old age;

      • in local low σv (σv <150) groups higher SFR is observed; their brightest galaxies are bluer – i.e. low σv and high density enhance interactions;

      • CGs are proper to probe how galaxy-galaxy low velocity encounters and merging can shape galaxy properties (CGs should be less sensitive to ram-pressure stripping and galaxy harassments, which work in clusters).

      • 75% of CGs show X-ray emission & signs of interactions in bright member-galaxies,

    • but CGs are different (true CGs, core + halo, in loose groups).


    Environment of poor groups its effect on galaxy population

    Environment of poor groups – its effect on galaxy population

    • / z-survey of 12 groups (vlim = 19), incl. 9 X-ray groups – Zabludoff & Mulchaey (2000) /

    • X-ray groups:

      • typically 30-60 members, show substructure – evidently still accreting subgroups;

      • σv (R) not decreasing out to Rvir – i.e. significant mass located in group halo, preventing merging to single central galaxy;

      • fraction of early-type galaxies is prop. to σv - similar to clusters

      • σv > 400 km/s is cluster domain – merging ceases;

      • 6 bright X-ray groups (log Lx > 41.2) show morphology – radius relation, i.e. B/D-ratio decreases with increasing projected radius;

      • disk-dominated gal-s are less asymmetric and with lower W0(Hα) than those in the field, i.e. X-ray groups are old, dynamically evolved, and signs of past interactions have been washed out

    • Non-X-ray groups:

      • have fewer ( < 10) members/faint satellites - are they bound ?

      • lower σv and lower fraction early-type galaxies;

      • their LF show dip btw. –19 < MB < -17, probably a result of recent merging of intermediate luminosity galaxies;

      • Local Group as prototype is bound and probably collapsing for the first time.


    Nearby groups of galaxies

    • Conclusions:

    • spiral-rich, low-mass groups formed more recently, should observe higher SF activity than in the field, more morphological disturbances, spiral-fraction lower or equal than in the field.

    • observations corroborate possible evolutionary sequence from low σv , spiral-dominated, actively SF groups to higher σv , early-type dominated, X-ray groups.

    • Where are young groups ?

    • HCG 16 / cz =3400, σv(8) = 85, LX = 2.4 1040 h-2 erg/s /

    • In extremely active phase: 1 Sy + 2 LINERs + 3 STBGs - prototype of on-going galaxy pre-processing (?)

    • SCG 0018-4854 / cz = 3400, σv(5) = 67, LX = 1.2 1040 h-2 /

    • Spiral-only group but detected in X-rays by XMM Newton


    Nearby groups of galaxies

    Identified as: KPG 548 (2) - Karachentsev ( ) WBL 666 (7) - White et al. (1999) RSCG 78 (4) - Barton et al. (1996) UZC-CG 272 (6) - Focardi et al. (2002) USGC (9) - Ramella et al. (2002)

    NGC 6962 group

    RA = 20h47m19.1s

    DEC = 00d19m15s

    z = 0.014

    Dist = 55 Mpc

    m-M = 33.84


    Ngc 6962 g roup members within 0 5 mpc

    NGC 6962 group members within ~ 0.5 Mpc


    Gallery of group members

    Gallery of group members


    Ngc 6962 g roup center with dwarf satellites

    NGC 6962 group center with dwarf satellites (?)


    X ray sources in the area of the ngc 6962 group

    X-ray sources in the area of the NGC 6962 group


    Sdss imaging data surface photometry of selected group members

    SDSS imaging data: Surface photometry of selected group members


    Sdss photometric parameters compared with new determinations

    SDSS photometric parameters: compared with new determinations


    Nearby groups of galaxies

    IC 65 groupRA = 01h00m55.4sDEC = 47d40m50sb = - 15.2 degcz = 2890 km/sDist = 38.5 Mpcm-M = 32.93Early identification:LGG 016 (3) – Garcia (1993)WSRT - HI, v. Moorsel (1983)


    Ic 65 group selection of dwarf satellites

    IC 65 group: selection of dwarf satellites


    Ic 65 group members

    IC 65 group members


    Summary

    concentrated, core + halo

    clear morphological segregation

    but luminous E’s are missing

    non X-ray group (consistent w. frac(E), low σv and M/L)

    substructure (probably collapsing, but short crossing time - ?)

    pure S + Irr group

    non X-ray group

    HI-rich, active SF (both in bright and dwarf members)

    Summary

    NGC 6962 group IC 65 group

    n: 20 8/6

    σv (km/s): 238 77

    Rh (kpc): 186 136

    LBT (1010 LO): 1.4 5.8

    M (1012 MO): 23.1 2.3

    M/L (1010 M/LO): 170 38

    tcrosH0: 0.46 0.09


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