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External and internal forces. There are TWO types of forces that designers MUST consider when designing structures. External Forces: forces that act on a structure from the OUTSIDE Internal Forces: forces that act a structure from WITHIN. External forces.

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external and internal forces
External and internal forces
  • There are TWO types of forces that designers MUST consider when designing structures.
  • External Forces: forces that act on a structure from the OUTSIDE
  • Internal Forces: forces that act a structure from WITHIN
external forces
External forces
  • What are some external forces you can think of?
  • The most obvious external force is gravity
  • External forces occur when……..
  • You push a swing, pull an elastic or throw a ball
  • External forces on buildings include…..
  • Wind, earthquakes, weight of people on the floors of the building and the weight of the building itself
important things about external forces
Important things about external forces

POINT OF APPLICATION:

The precise point at which the force is applied

PLANE OF APPLICATION:

An imaginary flat surface through which an applied force passes

****the point and plane of application make a difference in how an applied force affects a structure. See page 278 in your text

examples of the 4 internal forces
Examples of the 4 internal forces
  • Tension
  • Examples include: a stretched skipping rope, a trampoline, an electrical power line, a guitar string, the cables of a suspension bridge
  • Once the particles pass their breaking point the objects are unable to return to their original shape
  • Compression
  • Examples include: kicking a soccer ball, step on the sole of your shoe, lay your head on a foam cushion.
  • Compressed objects usually return to their original shape
examples continued
Examples continued
  • Torsion
  • Examples include: when a skater twists in a jump, a washcloth is wrung out, a doorknob is turned.
  • Created when both ends of a structure are twisted or when one end is twisted and the other is left stationary
  • Shear
  • Examples include: scissors cutting paper, strong wind bending a tree
what do you remember
What do you remember?

The force acting within the rope is called?

shear torsion tension compression

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