Defining the problem
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Defining the problem. To reduce fatal crashes between trucks and other vehicles, a study was conducted to identify when most of the fatalities are occurring and under what circumstances. . Who’s at “ FAULT ” in fatal accidents involving trucks & other vehicles. OTHER DRIVER AT FAULT = 71%

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Defining the problem

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Defining the problem

Defining the problem

  • To reduce fatal crashes between trucks and other vehicles, a study was conducted to identify when most of the fatalities are occurring and under what circumstances.


Who s at fault in fatal accidents involving trucks other vehicles

Who’s at “FAULT” in fatal accidents involving trucks & other vehicles

  • OTHER DRIVER AT FAULT = 71%

  • TRUCK DRIVER AT FAULT = 16%

  • BOTH DRIVERS AT FAULT = 11%

  • NO ONE AT FAULT = 2%


Truck crash statistics

Truck Crash Statistics

In two-vehicle fatal crashes between large trucks and passenger cars,

  • 7% of the truck drivers were under 26 years old

  • 2% were over 65

  • Less than 1% had a BAC of 0.10% or greater


Operator fatigue

Operator Fatigue

A significant number of vehicle accidents are caused by

  • Driver Fatigue

  • Loss of Alertness

  • Poor Performance at the Controls


Defining the problem

Fatigue-Related Accidents Cause

  • Fatality or severe injury

  • Loss of corporate revenues

  • Lower productivity

  • Place operator’s privileges at risk

  • Significant company liability exposure


Defining the problem

Operator fatigue, is a state of mind and body, a response to continued physical or mental activity or sleep loss, is characterized by diminished ability to work, loss of attention, slower reactions, poor response, deterioration of attention or alertness, & impaired judgment.


Defining the problem

Fatigue can be caused by combinations of inadequate rest, sleep loss and/or disrupted sleep, displaced biological (circadian) rhythms, excessive physical activity or mental work, and general psychological stress.


Physical fatigue

Physical Fatigue

… a temporary loss of muscle power to respond to demands

…a feeling of tiredness, soreness, or discomfort

…physical performance declines


Mental fatigue

Mental Fatigue

… a feeling of tiredness after extended or repeated tasks… particularly non-physical tasks such as driving

…may include feeling of monotony or boredom caused by lack of varied stimulation.


Mental fatigue1

Mental Fatigue

… negatively affects your level of alertness at the wheel & leads to poor driving performance


Chronic fatigue

Chronic Fatigue

… a short term condition that can be relieved by adequate rest and sleep; usually we can recover full alertness in just a few days with longer sleep (Sleeping longer on weekends, etc.).


Chronic fatigue1

Chronic Fatigue

… results from repeated and cumulative stress… some refer to it as “Burnout”

…may require extended break… several days off


Operator fatigue factors

Operator Fatigue Factors

….Quality & quantity of rest or sleep

….Individual physical fitness

….Individual endurance to demanding tasks

….Environmental conditions of heat, humidity, cold, altitude, etc.

….Performance on sustained work suffers before that on intermittent tasks

AND

Types of Tasks, Time-of-Day, Personal Motivation & Individual Differences


Operator fatigue1

Operator Fatigue

Sleep requirements differ for individual persons, and vary with age (infants, adolescents, young adults, mid-aged adults, seniors).


Operator fatigue2

Operator Fatigue

Most adults maintain normal alertness, perform near their best, by obtaining 7- 8 hours of uninterrupted sleep every 24 hours.


Operator fatigue3

Operator Fatigue

Some people get by with less sleep (5-6 hours) but often augment this sleep with naps.

Others think they can get by with less sleep, but in reality, if their performance were measured it is degraded.


Sleep structure

Sleep Structure

Normal nighttime sleep involves 4-5 repeated 90 minute cycles of brain electrical activity (coded into 5 sleep stages) as we restore ourselves to a refreshed, alert state, or we recuperate from sleep loss and fatigue.


Sleep structure1

Sleep Structure

Rapid eye movement (REM) or dream sleep and slow wave sleep (stages 3 & 4 are deep sleep) seem to be the most recuperative.


Continuity of sleep

Continuity of Sleep

A period of 4+ contiguous hours of sleep permits several uninterrupted 90-minute cycles.

Eight 1-hr sleeps are not the equivalent to a full 8-hrs of sleep. Intermittent, broken sleep is usually detrimental to alertness.


Sleep loss or sleep debt

Sleep Loss or Sleep Debt

When we miss sleep required to maintain normal alertness, we accrue a “SLEEP DEBT” which accumulates each successive 24-hr day we shortchange ourselves of anticipated sleep (obtaining only 5 hrs one night minus our required 8 nets 3-hr sleep debt).


Sleep loss or sleep debt1

Sleep Loss or Sleep Debt

If after several days our sleep debt accrues to 10-12 hrs sleep debt (more than one night’s sleep loss) we begin to perform as if we missed an entire night’s sleep.


Recovery sleep

Recovery Sleep

Paying off a sleep debt usually does not require a 1-for-1 replacement of hours missed sleep.


Recovery sleep1

Recovery Sleep

A “tired” brain quickly goes into a sleep stages 3 &4 which makes efficient use of the first long duration sleep period


Recovery sleep2

Recovery Sleep

Consequently, we spend a shorter time in the less restorative sleep stages (1 & 2), but more time in states 3, 4 and REM sleep


Recovery sleep3

Recovery Sleep

After weekly sleep debt of 15+ hrs we might make up a debt with one or two long duration recovery sleeps (10+ hrs) on the weekend.


Rest breaks

Rest Breaks

Rest may be a break in activity, or simply a change of pace or even a change in activities.

Rest breaks permit us to restore our energy, break the monotony, or give our bodies and minds relief.


Rest breaks1

Rest Breaks

Frequent Rest Breaks Can Be Helpful in Any Sustained Work.

But Rest Is Not the Same As Sleep,

And It Will Not Substitute for Needed Sleep.


Circadian rhythms

Circadian Rhythms

… our physiological & behavior patterns repeat daily in synchronization with our internal biological clock.


Circadian rhythms1

Circadian Rhythms

…body core temperature, urine production, hormonal excretions, digestive processes etc…. Repeat at the same time each day.


Circadian rhythms2

Circadian Rhythms

…as we wake up from a night’s sleep, our body temperature begins increasing, and gradually rises through the day until about 1 to 3 PM when it levels off somewhat.


Circadian rhythms3

Circadian Rhythms

… being awake past mid-night after no sleep results in feeling groggy, less alert, and performance is considerably degraded in this circadian low period (midnight to 4 AM) when our brain would prefer to be asleep.


Performance implications of c r

Performance Implications of C-R

…best time to obtain sleep is during the C-R lows (afternoon siestas or naps are valuable).

…if you cannot sleep during the C-R lows, taking a rest break will be beneficial


Work shift changes

Work Shift Changes

…sleeping, working, and eating meals on a new schedule requires a period of from one to three weeks for the body to adjust to the new rhythm, a period during which the worker is likely to experience “Shift- Lag” much like trans-meridian travelers experience “Jet Lag”.


Work shift changes1

Work Shift Changes

… forward shift rotations are easier than backward rotations.

… as an example, it is generally easier to adjust to flying westward by staying awake longer that day.


Keep in mind

Keep In Mind

…sleepiness and fatigue can be a serious threat to safe vehicle operation.

…fatigue is physiological and can be can be affected by our psychological factors.


Keep in mind1

Keep In Mind

… plan ahead to get enough sleep

… be aware of the “brain & body” principles of fatigue and sleep loss


Keep in mind2

Keep In Mind

…plan ahead, both at home, and on long trips,

…implement fatigue countermeasures


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