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Jerome Schaefer [email protected] Dealing With Escalating Behavior in the School Setting School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports Training Northwest AEA January 14, 2010. PURPOSE. Enhance our understanding of and ways of responding to escalating behavior. ASSUMPTIONS.

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Jerome schaefer jschaefer nwaea

Jerome Schaefer

[email protected]

Dealing With EscalatingBehavior in the School SettingSchool-Wide Positive Behavior Supports TrainingNorthwest AEAJanuary 14, 2010


Purpose

PURPOSE

Enhance our understanding of and ways of responding to escalating behavior.


Assumptions

ASSUMPTIONS

  • Behavior is learned (function).

  • Behavior is escalated through successive interactions.

  • Escalating behavior can be prevented.

  • Behavior can be changed through an instructional approach.


Jerome schaefer jschaefer nwaea

Tertiary Prevention:

Individualized

Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior

CONTINUUM OF

SCHOOL-WIDE

POSITIVE BEHAVIOR

SUPPORT

~5%

Secondary Prevention:

Targeted

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior

~15%

Primary Prevention:

School-wide/Classroom/

Non-classroom Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

What Do We Know About

Tertiary Interventions?

~80% of Students


Functions

Functions

Pos Reinf

Neg Reinf


Outcomes

OUTCOMES

  • Identification of the stages of escalation.

  • Identification of intervention strategies and adult behaviors to be used at the various stages of escalation.

  • Identification of the key strategies to be used when confronting escalating behaviors.


Shane

Shane


Jerome schaefer jschaefer nwaea

What assignment?

Jason, please turn in your assignment.

The assignment you didn’t finish during class.

I finished it.

Great, please turn it in now.

I don’t have it with me now.

Share your experiences

You have a choice…..turn it in or do it again.

You never believe me.

I guess you’ve made the choice to do it again.

Make me.

That’s disrespect…go to the office.

F_____ you!

Moves closer…& puts hand on J. shoulder.

Pulls away, glares, & raises fist as if to strike.


The model

The MODEL

High

Peak

Acceleration

De-escalation

Agitation

Trigger

Calm

Recovery

Low


The model1

The MODEL

High

Low

CALM




1 calm

1. Calm

  • Student is cooperative.

    • Accepts corrective feedback.

    • Follows directives.

    • Sets personal goals.

    • Ignores distractions.

    • Accepts praise.

    • Reasoning and compromising skills are at their highest


Interventions adult behaviors

Focus on teaching, and prevention

Assessing probable triggers, functions, skill deficits

High rates of successful academic and social experiences

High rates of positive reinforcement

Teach social skills

Communicating positive expectations

Consider your own emotional and physiological state

Consider your relationship with the individual

Consider the student’s emotional state

Interventions/Adult Behaviors


The model2

The MODEL

High

TRIGGER



Low


2 trigger

2. Trigger

  • Student experiences a series of unresolved conflicts.

    • Repeated failures

    • Frequent corrections from adults and/or peers

    • Interpersonal conflicts with adults and/or peers

    • Low rates of positive reinforcement

    • Student showing signs of frustration or distress

    • Triggers are most often environmental (can be internal)

    • Reasoning and compromising skills still in tact


Interventions adult behaviors1

Focused on prevention and redirection

Consider function of problem behavior when responding

Remove or modify problem events (eliminating triggers)

Reinforce what you have taught (pre-correct)

Stay calm with your words and your body

Soft tone of voice

Using the student’s name

Actively listen

Determine whether ignoring is appropriate

Interventions/Adult Behaviors


Sarah

Sarah


The model3

The MODEL

High

AGITATION

Low


3 agitation

3. Agitation

  • Student exhibits increase in unfocused behavior.

    • Off-task

    • Very brief periods of focused working

    • Signs of frustration and distress are clearly evident

    • Out of seat

    • Talking with others

    • Social withdrawal/isolation

    • Reasoning and compromising skills under attack


Interventions adult behaviors2

Intervention is focused on being proactive

Consider function of problem behaviors when responding

Redirect to less agitating activities (environmental modifications)

Provide reasonable options and choices

Remind about options through limited problem solving

Don’t ignore it

Don’t try to attempt teaching of new skills, rather reinforce skills they use and remind of the skills they have

Stay calm

Interventions/Adult Behaviors


Sarah1

Sarah


The model4

The MODEL

High

ACCELERATION

Low


4 acceleration

4. Acceleration

  • Student displays focused behavior.

    • Provocative

    • High intensity

    • Threatening

    • Personal

    • Significant decrease in reasoning and compromising skills

    • Use of the language of fear (obscenities)

    • Talking louder and faster

    • Quick movements

    • Less self-control


Interventions adult behaviors3

Intervention is focused on safety

Remove all triggers

Disengage from the student (especially if you are a part of the escalation)

Prevent power struggles and arguments

Choose your physical placement carefully

Stay calm

Remind of options but not as “either/or”

Prepare for being personally attacked

Bring in another adult to assist

Don’t rush the child to return to the calm phase

Interventions/Adult Behaviors


What did this guy to wrong

What did this guy to wrong?


The model5

The MODEL

High

PEAK

Low


5 peak

5. Peak

  • Student is out of control & displays most severe problem behavior.

    • Verbal aggression

    • Physical aggression

    • Property destruction

    • Self-injury

    • Escape/social withdrawal

    • Hyperventilation

    • No reasoning or compromising skills


Remember this guy

Remember this guy…


Interventions adult behaviors4

Interventions are focused on safety of the student, other students, and adults

Remain calm

Careful body positioning (stay out of reach)

Carefully choose words

Communicate understanding (empathy)

Remove other students

Use diversions and distractions

Follow the crisis intervention plan

Involve other staff members

Use of physical interventions as necessary (Mandt training or similar training may be necessary)

Interventions/Adult Behaviors


The model6

The MODEL

High

De-escalation

Low


6 de escalation

6. De-escalation

  • Student displays confusion but with decreases in severe behavior.

    • Social withdrawal

    • Denial

    • Blaming others

    • Minimization of problem

    • Still not using good reasoning or compromising skills

    • Could quickly return to peak


Interventions adult behaviors5

Focus is on removing access attention

Don’t nag

Don’t blame

Don’t force or even assume the student will apologize

Provide structure (structured cooling off)

Take your time – don’t rush it

Be careful not to re-escalate by focusing on consequences at this time

Don’t try to teach

Provide choices and/or reminders of choices

Allow the student to direct their progress

Interventions/Adult Behaviors


The model7

The MODEL

High

RECOVERY

Low


7 recovery

7. Recovery

  • Student displays eagerness to engage in activities.

    • Attempts to correct problem.

    • Unwillingness to participate in group activities.

    • Social withdrawal

    • Emotional and physically drained (sleep)

    • Reasoning and compromising skills return but not fully

    • Some capacity of self-control returns


Interventions adult behaviors6

Focus is on debriefing and transitioning back

Use of humor if appropriate

Positively reinforce displays of appropriate behavior

Begin to reestablish routine activities

Active listening

Don’t require apologies

Provide your own apologies and/or clarifications if needed

Focus on the present

Don’t expect remorse or concern

Interventions/Adult Behaviors


Post recovery sometime later

Post-Recovery(sometime later)

  • Teach through problem solving example:

    • What did I do?

    • Why did I do it?

    • What could I have done instead?

    • What do I have to do next?

    • Can I do it?

    • Love and Logic Procedure


The model8

The MODEL

High

Peak

Acceleration

De-escalation

Agitation

Trigger

Calm

Recovery

Low


Key strategies

KEY STRATEGIES

  • Teach coping skills prior to escalating incidents or at post-recovery time.

  • Look for replacement behaviors that can be taught & serve similar function.

  • Manage your own behavior.

  • Identify environmental factors that can be manipulated to prevent escalating behaviors.

  • Don’t hurry or attempt to force students through phases of escalation.

  • Develop and follow crisis intervention plans to deal with the Peak phase of escalation.

  • Follow-up sometime after the incident with the student problem solve and teach ways to better deal with their behavior.


Sources

Sources

  • Power Point Presentation - School Wide Positive Behavioral Supports Training (Colvin and Sugai, 1989)

  • The Mandt System: Putting People First (David Mandt and Associates, April, 2002)


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