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Evolution A Short Biography of Life a play PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Evolution A Short Biography of Life a play. Time. Age of the universe: 13.72 ± 0.12 billion years Age of solar system: 4.54 ± 0.45 billion years Age of earth: ~4 billion years Age of life: ~3.5 billion years Age of eukaryotes: ~1.8 billion years Age of multicellulars: ~1.2 billion years

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Evolution

A Short Biography of Life

a play


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Time


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Age of the universe: 13.72 ± 0.12 billion years

Age of solar system: 4.54 ± 0.45 billion years

Age of earth: ~4 billion years

Age of life: ~3.5 billion years

Age of eukaryotes: ~1.8 billion years

Age of multicellulars: ~1.2 billion years

Age of chordates: 500-550 million years

Age of mammals: ~240 million years

Age of placentals: ~130 million years

Age of primates: ~60 million years

Age of apes: ~30 million years

Age of genus Homo: ~2.5 million years

Age of Homo sapiens: ~150,000 years

Written history: ~5,000 years


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23:52 PM


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Stage


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Antonio Snider-Pellegrini. 1858. La Création et ses mystères dévoilés ("Creation and its Mysteries Unveiled")


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Bullard’s fit (by computer)

Edward Bullard

Bullard E, Everett JE, Smith AG. 1965. The fit of the continents around the Atlantic. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 258A: 41-51.


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Alfred Lothar Wegener (1880-1930)

Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane[The origin of continents and oceans], 1915.


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Continental drift


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Paleontological Evidence


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plants don’t swim!


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slow process


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separartions


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collisions


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94 million years ago to present


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Present to 250 million years into the future


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Do not buy waterfront real estate in Texas!


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Magnetic north pole


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Cast


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Estimated Numbers of Described Extant Species (Lecointre and Guyader 2001)*

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TaxonCommon NameNumber of described speciesPercentage of total (%)

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Bacteriatrue bacteria90210.5

Archaeaarchaebacteria2590.01

Bryophyta mosses150000.9

Lycopodiophytaclubmosses12750.07

Filicophyta ferns95000.5

Coniferophyta conifers6010.03

Magnoliophyta flowering plants23388513.4

Fungi fungi1008005.8

"Porifera"sponges100000.6

Cnidaria cnidarians90000.5

Rotiferarotifers18000.1

Platyhelminthesflatworms137800.8

Molluscamollusks1174956.7

Annelidaannelid worms143600.8

Nematodanematodes200001.1

Arachnidaarachnids744454.3

Crustaceacrustaceans388392.2

Insectainsects82787547.4

Echinodermataechinoderms60000.3

Chondrichthyescartilaginous fishes8460.05

Actinopterygiiray-finned bony fishes237121.4

Lissamphibiaamphibians49750.3

Mammaliamammals44960.3

Cheloniaturtles2900.02

Squamatalizards and snakes68500.4

Avesbirds96720.6

Other19307511.0

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*The total number of described species is assumed to be 1,747,851. This figure, and the numbers of species for taxa are taken from LeCointre and Guyader (2001) and Cracraft (2002).

Lecointre, G. and H. Le Guyader. (2001). Classification phylogenetique du vivant. Paris, France: Belin.

Cracraft, C. (2002). The seven great questions of systematic biology: an essential foundation for conservation and the sustainable use of biodiversity. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 89, 127-144.


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About right…

Vertebrates 50,841

Flowering Plants233,885


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Slight underestimates…

Arthropods941,159

Fungi100,800

~3,000,000-30,000,000 species


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Huge underestimates…

Bacteria 9,021

Archaea 259

?


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Total number of described species:

1,747,851

Estimated range of total number of species in the world:

3,600,000 to 117,700,000

Erwin TL. 1982. Tropical forests: Their richness in Coleoptera and other arthropod species. The Coleopterist Bulletin 36(1): 74-75.

Lecointre G & Le Guyader H. 2001. Classification phylogenetique du vivant. Belin: Paris.

Cracraft C. 2002. The seven great questions of systematic biology: an essential foundation for conservation and the sustainable use of biodiversity. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 89:127-144.


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Known knowns

&

Known unknowns

“There are known knowns. These are things we know that we know. There are known unknowns. That is to say, there are things that we know we don't know. But there are also unknown unknowns. There are things we don't know we don't know.” Donald Rumsfeld


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~30% of all animals are beetles

There is a story, possibly apocryphal, of the distinguished British biologist, J. B. S. Haldane, who found himself in the company of a group of theologians. On being asked what one could conclude as to the nature of the Creator from a study of his creation, Haldane is said to have answered, “An inordinate fondness for beetles.”

Hutchinson,G. E. 1959. Homage to Santa Rosalia or

Why are there so many kinds of animals? Am. Nat.

93:145-159.


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Allocation of money and scientific effort in the study of eukaryotes


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Exits


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Background

Extinctions


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Mass

Extinctions


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K/T event


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K/T event


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Periodicity?


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Controversy:

Do mass extinctions exhibit a periodicity of 25-32 million years?


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GPC-3 = name of a sample sediment core


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Controversy:

Is the cause of mass extinctions always extraterrestrial?


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Acceleration of extinction rates?

Unit = extinctions per million species per year (E/MSY)

1500-1900 25 E/MSY

1900-2000 50-150 E/MSY

2000-20061500 E/MSY

Pimm S, Raven P, Peterson A, Sekercioglu ÇH & Ehrlich PR. 2006. Human impacts on the rates of recent, present, and future bird extinctions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103: 10941-10946.


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