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History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

“TPM Basics”

by

Best Performing Consulting Organization

AddingValueInTotality!!


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

TPM BASICS


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

It is a Japanese approach for

  • Creating company culturefor maximum efficiency

  • Striving to prevent losses with minimum cost

    • Zero breakdowns and failures, Zero accident, and Zero defects etc

  • The essence of team work (small group activity) focused on condition and performance of facilities to achieve zero loss for improvement

  • Involvement of all people from top management to operator


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

TPM is a innovative Japanese concept which can be traced back to 1951.

However the concept of preventive maintenance was taken from USA. Nippondenso was the first company to introduce plant wide preventive maintenance in 1960.

Nippondenso which already followed preventive maintenance also added Autonomous maintenance done by production operators.


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

Preventive maintenance along with Maintenance prevention and Maintainability Improvement gave birth to Productive maintenance.

By then Nippon Denso had made quality circles, involving the employees participation. Thus all employees took part in implementing Productive maintenance. 


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

  • TPM first introduced in Japan 20 years ago and rigorously been applied in past 10 years

  • TPM planning & implementation in Japanese factories supported by JIPM (Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance)

  • Awarded yearly prizes to various industries:

    • Automotive

    • Metals

    • Chemicals

    • Rubber

    • Food

    • Glass etc.


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

  • Initially implemented in

    high-to-medium volume production areas

  • Later successfully applied in:

    • Low-volume production

    • High-to-low volume assembly

    • Development areas

    • Warehouse

    • Whole range of industry


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

Breakdown Maintenance

1951

Preventive Maintenance

Evolution of TPM

1957

Corrective Maintenance

1960

Productive Maintenance

1971 TPM

Total Productive Maintenance

Time-based era

Condition-based era

ZERO

A C

C A

CM

IP

DA

EI

NG

TN

(1971)

Z D

G

R

O

U

P

(1965)

Q C

C

I

R

C

L

E

(1962)


Role of tpm

Answers of the following questions are able to tell what role TPM can play within a company:

Does TPM replace traditional maintenance techniques ?

Why is it so important ?

What are its policies and objectives ?

Role of TPM


Tpm and traditional maintenance

Reactive maintenance inherently wasteful and ineffective with following disadvantages:

No warning of failure

Possible safety risk

Unscheduled downtime of machinery

Production loss or delay

Possible secondary damage

TPM and Traditional Maintenance


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

Need for:

Stand-by machinery

A stand-by maintenance team

A stock of spare parts

Costs include:

Post production

Disrupted schedule

Repair cost

Stand-by machinery

Spare parts


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

Real cost of reactive maintenance is more than the cost of maintenance resources and spare parts

Pro-active maintenance (planned, preventive and predictive) more desirable than reactive maintenance


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

TPM enables or provides:

The traditional maintenance practices to change from reactive to pro-active

A number of mechanisms whereby

Breakdowns are analyzed

Causes investigated

Actions taken to prevent further breakdowns

Preventive maintenance schedule to be made more meaningful


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

To ‘free up’ maintenance professionals to:

Carry out scheduled and preventive maintenance

Gather relevant information as important input to the maintenance system

Keep the system up to date

To review cost effectiveness

To develop and operate a very effective maintenance system an integral part of manufacturing


Why is tpm so popular and important

Three main reasons:

It guarantees dramatic results (Significant tangible results)

Reduce equipment breakdowns

Minimize idle time and minor stops

Less quality defects and claims

Increase productivity

Reduce manpower and cost

Lower inventory

Reduce accidents

Why is TPM so popular and important ?


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

Visibly transform the workplace

(plant environment)

Through TPM, a filthy, rusty plant covered in oil and grease, leaking fluids and spilt powders can be reborn as a pleasant and safe working environment

Customers and other visitors are impressed by the change

Confidence on plant’s product increases


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

Raises the level of workers knowledge and skills

As TPM activities begin to yield above concrete results, it helps:

The workers to become motivated

Involvement increases

Improvement suggestions proliferate

People begin to think of TPM as part of the job


Tpm policy and objectives

Policy and objectives:

To maximize overall equipment effectiveness(Zero breakdowns and failures, Zero accident, and Zero defects etc) through total employee involvement

To improve equipment reliability and maintainabilityas contributors to quality and to raise productivity

TPM Policy and Objectives


Tpm basic policy and objectives

To aim for maximum economy in equipment for its entire life

To cultivate equipment-related expertise and skills among operators

To create a vigorous and enthusiastic work environment

TPM Basic policy and objectives


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

TPM Corporate policyfor the following purposes:

To aim for world-class maintenance, manufacturing performance and quality

To plan for corporate growth through business leadership


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

TPM Corporate policy:

To promote greater efficiency through greater flexibility

Revitalize the workshop and make the most of employee talents


Production dept tpm to companywide tpm

Production dept.TPM to Companywide TPM


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

TTotal•Overall efficiency.

•Total production system.

•Participation of all employees.

PProductive• Zero defect.

• No trouble in operation.

• Safety.

MMaintenance • Longer life cycle of production

system.


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

  • Aims at “Breakthrough improvement in productivity and reducing chronic losses to zero”.

  • Aims at “Creating a bright, clean, and pleasant factory”.

  • Means “To reinforce people and facilities and through them, the whole organization”.

  • Addresses “Overall equipment effectiveness”.

  • Institutionalizes “Total Employees Involvement” – “Participative management” and an “Overall-small group organization”.

  • Eliminates inter departmental walls and facilitates Cross Functional Management.

  • Is material oriented; it seeks to keep equipment in its intended condition.


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

MARKET CIRCUMSTANCES

IN-HOUSE CIRCUMSTANCES

  • Easy funds for /capacity build up

  • Market demand / consumption sluggish, High quality competition in the market

  • Result -Stiff competition, low returns

  • Opportunity to earn profit

  • Increasing quality consciousness in market

  • New plants very efficient and cost effective.

  • Increasing input material cost

  • Increasing wages and salaries.

  • Rising cost of raw material

  • Higher power cost & specific power

  • Higher specific fuel consumption

  • Higher man power cost

  • Heavy losses, low profit due to equipment failures / low reliability / indifferent attitude

  • Lower skill levels and involvement

  • Compartmentalization,

  • lack of horizontal communication

  • Low moral/ organizational politics

  • Unsafe working

  • Pressure from TOP to progress fast

CRISIS FOR THE COMPANY


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

RESULTS EXPECTED

ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTS

  • Productivity enhancement

  • Cost Reduction

  • Delivery period shortening

  • Sales Expansion

  • Employee Involvement

  • Top management Commitment

  • Management Tools


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

  • The process adopted is a proven methodology based on:

  • 1.  Understanding the current status

  • 2.  Setting up an organisation

  • 3.  Training people

  • 4.  Identifying model areas and machines for initial improvement

  • 5. Improvement of Model machines to the original condition and achievement of zero loss concept. Each machine is to be improved by a Cross Functional Team consisting of 1 team leader (Manager –Level) and 5-6 members consisting of Engineer/Supervisor level.

  • 6.  Horizontal deployment of the approach to the rest of the plant

  • 7. Finally covers entire organization and involve every employee from top to bottom.


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

1. Equipment failure loss

2. Set up & adjustment loss

3. Cutting tool and jig change loss

4. Start up loss

5. Minor Stoppage and idling loss

6. Reduced speed loss

7. Defects &rework loss

8. Shutdown loss

9. Management loss

10. Operating motion loss

11. Line organization loss

12. Logistics loss

13. Measurement and adjustment loss

14. Energy Loss

15. Die, Tool and Jig loss

16. Yield loss

EQUIPMENT LOSS

MAN LOSS

MATERIAL& ENERGY LOSS


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

JH

SHE

PM

QM

E&T

DM

OTPM

5 S


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

2 JISHUHOZEN

  • THIS PILLAR DEVELOPS OPERATOR TO TAKE CARE OF SMALL MAINTENANCE TASKS .

  • RESULTING SKILLED MAINTENACE TEAM TO CONCETRATE ON VALUE ADDED AND

  • TECHNICAL REPAIRS .

  • THE OPERATOR RESPONSIBLE FOR UP KEEP OPF THEIR EQUIPMENT TO PREVENT IT

  • FROM DETERIORATING

7STEPS

Initial cleaning

Counter measures for the causes of forced deterioration& improve hard to access

Preparation of tentative JH standards

General inspection

Autonomous Inspection

Standardization

Autonomous Management


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

3 PLANNED MAINTENANCE

  • THIS PILLAR AIMED TOWARDS

  • TROUBLE FREE MACHINES AND EQUIPMENTS

  • PRODUCING DEFECT FREE PRODUCTS FOR TOTAL CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

  • FOUR CATEGORIES

  • PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE

  • BREAK DOWN MAINTENANCE

  • CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE

  • MAINTENANCE PREVENTION

  • BENEFITS

  • ACHIEVE AND SUSTAINAVAILABILITY OF MACHINES

  • OPTIMUM MAINTENANCE COST

  • REDUCES SPARES INVENTORY

  • IMPROVE RELIABILITY AND MAINTENABILITY OF MACHINES


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

11 Steps Approach to Zero Break down

Approach to Zero breakdown

  • Classify B/D data ( Including Equipment Ranking)

  • Analysis of present status QC Approach

  • Eliminate forced deterioration

  • Find out root cause & implement countermeasure

  • Identify breakdown recurrence / understand phenomenon

  • Investigate weakness & improve it

  • 7.Investigate natural deterioration

  • 8.Set deterioration pattern

  • 9.Select & evaluate maintenance point & standard

  • 10.Decide PM / TBM / CBM

  • Build best maintenance procedure

Five Phases for concrete actions against breakdown

Phase 1 : Change to natural deterioration by eliminating

factors of accelerated deterioration.

Phase 2 : Extend inherent service life of equipment by corrective maintenance ( Improvements to overcome design limitations)

Phase 3 : Research natural deterioration pattern.

Study how deterioration increases over time

Phase 4 : Search which parameter to measure for deterioration

Phase 5 : Implement predictive maintenance


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

4 QUALITY MAINTENANCE

  • THIS PILLAR AIMED TOWARDS

  • CUSTOMER DELIGHT THROUGH HIGHEST QAULITY

  • DEFECT FREE MANUFACTURING

  • ELIMINATING NON CONFORMANCES IN A SYSTMATIC MANNER

  • REACTIVE TO PROACTIVE LIKE (QUALITY CONTROL TO QUALITY ASSURANCE)

  • BENEFITS

  • DEFECT FREE CONDITION AND CONTROL OF EQUIPMENTS

  • QM ACIVITY TO CONTROL QUALITY ASSURANCE

  • FOCUS OF PREVENTION OF DEFECTS AT SOURCE

  • FOCUS ON POKA-YOKE (FOOL PROOF SYSTEM)

  • IN LINE DETECTION AND SEGREGATION OF DEFECTS

  • EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF OPERATOR QUALITY ASSURANCE

  • ACHIEVE & SUSTAIN CUSTOMER COMPLAINT ZERO


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

5 EDUCATION TRAINING

  • THIS PILLAR AIMED TOWARDS

  • DEVELOPING MULTISKILL EMPLOYEES WHOSE MORALE IS HIGH AND WHO HAS EAGER TO COME TO WORK AND PERFORM ALL REQUIRED FUNCTIONS EFFECTIVELY AND INDEPENDENTLY

  • EMPLOYEES WILL BE TRAINED TO ADDRESS THE PROBLEM BY FINDING THE

  • ROOT CAUSE & ELIMINATING THEM

  • THE GOAL IS TO CREATE A FACTORY FULL OF EXPERTS

  • BENEFITS

  • ACHIEVE AND SUSTAIN ZERO LOSSES DUE TO LACK OF KNOWLEDGE /SKILLS /TECHNIQUE

  • REMOVE FATIGUE AND MAKE WORK MORE ENJOYABLE

  • UPGRADING THE OPERATING & MAINTENACE SKILLS


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

6 DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT

THIS PILLAR AIMED TOWARDS

  • Collection & utilization of feedback information regarding present products before

  • the start of the design.- like MP sheet.

  • Measuring needs for “ Easy of manufacturing “ by analyzing the process for present products.

  • Measuring needs for “ Easy of manufacturing” by analyzing process of new products in the

  • stage of planning & design of products. By identifying failures possibilities based on design reviews of new products.

  • By identifying failures possibilities based on trail manufacturing & test of new products.

  • BENEFITS

  • REDUCES LEAD TIME TO NEW PRODUCT LAUNCH

  • REDUCE THE LOSSES

  • COST EFFECTIVE


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

7 SAFETY HEALTH ENVIROMENT

  • THIS PILLAR AIMED TOWARDS

  • CREATE SAFE WORK PLACE AND SAFE WORK PRACTICE

  • THIS PILLAR PLAY VITAL ROLE WITH OTHER PILLARS ON REGULAR BAISI

  • BENEFITS

  • ZERO ACCIDENT

  • ZERO FIRES

  • ZERO HELATH DAMAGES

  • SAFE WORKING CONDITION

  • SAFE WORK PRACTICE


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

8 OFFICE TPM

  • THIS PILLAR AIMED TOWARDS

  • TO IMPROVE PRODUCTIVITY

  • EFFICIENCY IN THE ADMINSTRATIVE FUNCTIONS AND IDENTIFY TO ELEMINATE LOSSES

  • ANALYZYING PROCESSES AND PROCEDURES TOWARDS INCREASED OFFICE AUTOMATION

  • BENEFITS

  • INVENTORY REDUCTION

  • LEAD TIME REDUCTION OF CRITICAL PROCESS

  • EQUILISING THE WROK LOAD

  • RETRIEVAL TIME REDUCTION (REDUCE REPETITIVE WORK)

  • BETTER UTYILIZED WORK AREA

  • REUDCTION IN ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

  • Results in building up corporate culture that thoroughly pursues production

  • System efficiency improvement OEE(Overall Equipment efficiency-)

  • Constructs a system to prevent every kind of loss, for example “Zero accidents, Zero defects and Zero failures” based Gemba (Work Place) and Genbutsu (actual thing) over the entire life cycle of a production system.

  • Covers all departments including production, Quality Control, Purchase, marketing, Administration, Design & development, Maintenance & Engineering.

  • Requires all and full involvement from top management to frontline employees. It builds up an overlapping multidiscipline process based management teams to achieve excellence


Oee a x p x q

Overall Equipment Efficiency

OEE = A x P x Q

A= Availability

P= Performance

Q= Quality


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

Availability =

Standard time – downtime

Standard time

Performance =

Components Produced

Components supposed to be Produced

Quality =

Total Acceptable Components

Total Components produced


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

Example 1

A medium volume manufacturing facility with a

capacity of producing 2 parts/minute actually produced 800 parts in a planned running 2 shifts of 8 hours each. It had breaks and scheduled maintenance for 40 minutes and also faced 40 minutes breakdowns and 1 hour 20 minutes for changeover and adjustment. Number of rejects and re-works were 10 and 6 parts respectively. Calculate its overall effectiveness

Planned production time = 2x8 hrs. = 960 minutes

Loading time = 960-40 (breaks & scheduled maintenance) = 920 min.

Down-time=40 (Breakdowns) + 80(Changeover & adjustment)= 120

Loading time – Down time 920 - 120

%Availability = --------------------------------x100 = ----------------x100 = 87%

Loading time 920


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

Example 1 (Contd.)

Quantity produced 800

%Performance = --------------------------------x100 = -------------x100 = 50%

Time run x Capacity/given time (920-120)x2

Amount produced – Amount defects – Amount re-work

%Quality = ----------------------------------------------------------------------- x 100

Amount produced

800 – 10 – 6

= -------------------- x 100 = 98%

800

Overall effectiveness(OEE) = 0.87 x 0.5 x 0.98 x 100 = 42.6 %


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

Example 2

A chemical plant was expected to run for 120 hours/week continuously with production capacity of 2400 metric tones /hour. At the end the week it produced 220,000 tones together with a waste of 3000 tones. It had120 minutes breakdowns and 460 minutes changeover and adjustment. Calculate plant overall effectiveness.

Planned production time = 120 hrs/week = 7200 minutes

For continuous production, breaks and scheduled maintenance = 0

Therefore, loading time = 7200-0 = 7200 min.

Down-time = 120 (Breakdowns) + 460(Changeover & adjustment) = 580

Loading time – Down time 7200 - 580

%Availability = --------------------------------x100 = ----------------x100 = 92%

Loading time 7200


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

Example 2 (Contd.)

Quantity produced 220,000

%Performance = ---------------------------x100 = ------------------x100 = 83%

Time run x Capacity (6620)x(2400/60)

Amount produced – Amount waste

%Quality = ---------------------------------------------x 100

Amount produced

220,000 – 3000

= -------------------- x 100 = 98.6%

220,000

Overall effectiveness = 0.92 x 0.83 x 0.986 x 100 = 75.3 %


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

MTBF

  • Mean Time Between Failure

  • The average amount of operating time between consecutive breakdowns for an item of equipment (or plant).

  • Formula

  • Operating time is productive time plus production delays.

  • Number of failures or breakdown events is the number of failures on an item of equipment (or plant).

  • Interpretation

  • Maintenance effort required is decreasing.

  • Maintenance practices / mechanisms are effective.

  • Failure frequency is decreasing.

  • Operating conditions are improving.

MTBF

  • Maintenance effort required is increasing.

  • Maintenance practices / mechanisms are ineffective.

  • Failure frequency is increasing.

  • Operating conditions are deteriorating.


History of total productive maintenance tpm addvalue nilesh arora

MTTR

  • Mean Time To Repair

  • The average maintenance time required to keep an item of equipment (or plant) operational.

  • Formula

  • Down time is the total time equipment (or plant) is down for maintenance work (preventive and corrective).

  • Number of failures or breakdown events is the number of failures on an item of equipment (or plant).

  • Interpretation

  • Maintenance practices / mechanisms are ineffective.

  • Poor clean-up (work preparation) practices.

  • Ineffective work practices.

MTTR

  • Maintenance practices / mechanisms are effective.

  • Clean-up (work preparation) practices effective.

  • Effective work practices.


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