Ethical “reference” tests
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Ethical “reference” tests David A. Whetten & Kim S. Cameron, “Developing Management Skills,” 5th Ed., 2002, Prentice Hall. Front Page test: Would I be embarrassed if my decision became a headline in the local newspaper?

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Front page test

Ethical “reference” testsDavid A. Whetten & Kim S. Cameron, “Developing Management Skills,” 5th Ed., 2002, Prentice Hall

Front Page test:

  • Would I be embarrassed if my decision became a headline in the local newspaper?

  • Would I feel comfortable describing my actions or decision to a customer or stockholder?

    Golden rule test:

  • Would I be willing to be treated in the same manner?

    Dignity and liberty test

  • Are the dignity and liberty of others preserved by this decision?

  • Is the basic humanity of the affected parties enhanced?

  • Are their opportunities expanded or curtailed?

    Equal treatment test:

  • Are the rights, welfare, and betterment of minorities and lower-status people given full consideration?

  • Does this decision benefit those with privilege but without merit?

    Personal gain test:

  • Is an opportunity for personal gain clouding my judgment?

  • Would I make the same decision if the outcome did not benefit me in any way?

    Congruence test:

  • Is this decision or action consistent with my espoused personal principles?

  • Does it violate the spirit of any organizational policies or laws?

    Procedural justice test:

  • Can the procedures used to make this decision stand up to scrutiny by those affected?

    Cost-benefit test:

  • Does a benefit for some cause unacceptable harm to others?

  • How critical is the benefit?

  • Can the harmful effects be mitigated?

    Good night’s sleep test

  • Whether or not anyone else knows about my action, will it produce a good night's sleep?


Nine basic steps to personal ethical decision making

Nine Basic Steps to Personal Ethical Decision Making

  • Practice ethical behavior actively

  • Beware of "new ethics" programs

  • Define the ethical problem when it arises

  • Formulate alternatives

  • Evaluate the alternatives

  • Seek additional assistance, as appropriate

  • Choose best ethical alternative

  • Implement the best alternative

  • Monitor and assess the outcome


Front page test

X

absolute

Information

Critical Thinking

Time Frame

Analysis

Relative

Evaluation

Philosophical framework

Teleology

Deontology

Virtue

Core Values

Principal Stakeholders

Cognitive Dissonance

BEHAVIOR

Rationalization (Justification)

Conventional

Principles

Care

Ethics Tests

Justice

Rights

Utilitarian

Virtue


Front page test

Ethical Decision-Making Process

Identify Action,

Decision, or Behavior

to be Taken

Articulate all dimensions of proposed

Action, decision, or behavior

Ethics Screening

  • Conventional Approach

  • Standards Norms

  • Personal

  • Organizational

  • Societal

  • International

  • Principles Approach

  • Ethical Principles

  • Justice

  • Rights

  • Utilitarianism

  • Golden Rule

  • Care Approach

  • Relational

  • ontology & ideal

  • Attentiveness

  • Contextual

  • Ethical Tests Approach

  • Common Sense

  • One’s Best Self

  • Public Disclosure

  • Ventilation

  • Purified Idea

  • Gag Test

Passes

Ethics Screens

Fails Ethics

Screens

Do Not Proceed

Identify new

course of Action

Proceed / Engage


Front page test

Action

Impartiality

Objective

Logical

Consequences

Partiality

Subjective

Emotional

Ethics

A dynamic balance ….


Front page test

open access

information for all

free access

development, self-determ-ination

autonomy

knowledge sharing

responsibility

participation,

open access

participation

right to read

development,

information competence

education for all

life-long learning

education for all

right to write

deliberative democracy

collaboration knowledge sharing

information ecology

inter-generational

access

right to learn

self-determi-nation

information control

privacy,

data protection

no censorship

right to com-municate

right to filter

inclusive-ness

justice

sustain-ability

The information ethics matrix

values and rights in electronic environments

right to commu-nicate

rights

values

This PP file is made publicly available under the following Creative-Commons-License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/de/

Rainer Kuhlen – Computer and Information Science – University of Konstanz, Germany

Transborder Library Forum – Chihuahua, Mexico – March 2005


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