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REGISTER. A Register is a group of binary storage cells suitable for holding binary information. A group of flip-flops constitutes a register, since each flip-flop is a binary cell capable of storing one bit of information.

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register

REGISTER

A Register is a group of binary storage cells suitable for holding binary information.

A group of flip-flops constitutes a register, since each flip-flop is a binary cell capable of storing one bit of information.

An n-bit register has a group of n flip-flops and it capable of storing any binary information containing n bits.

A Register consists of a group of flip-flops and gates that effect their transition.

The flip-flops hold binary information and

The gates control when and how new information is transferred into the register.

register2
REGISTER
  • A Register constructed with four D-type flip-flops and a common clock pulse output.
  • The clock pulse, CP, enables all flip-flops so that the informations presently available at the four inputs can be transferred into the 4-bit register.
  • There are two types of registers: parallel and serial registers. They differ in the manner in which the binary data is loaded and retrieved from them
shift register
SHIFT REGISTER
  • A Register capable of shifting its binary information either to the right or to the left is called a “Shift Register”.
  • It consists of a chain of flip-flops connected in cascade, with the output of one flip-flop connected to the input of the next flip-flop.
shift register2
SHIFT REGISTER

The basic types of shift registers are as follows,

  • Serial In - Serial Out,
  • Serial In - Parallel Out,
  • Parallel In - Serial Out,
  • Parallel In - Parallel Out, and
  • bidirectional shift registers. 
serial in serial out shift register1
Serial In - Serial Out Shift Register

The difference between serial transfer and parallel transfer is:

  • In the parallel mode information is available from all bits of register and all bits can be transferred simultaneously during one clock pulse.
  • In the serial mode, the registers have a single serial input and a single serial output.
  • The information is transferred one bit at a time while registers are shifted in the same direction
serial in serial out shift register2
Serial In - Serial Out Shift Register
  • To prevent the loss of information stored in the source register, the serial output of A is connected to its serial input.
  • The shift control input determines when and how many times the register are shift.
  • Here each register has four bits and each rising edge of the pulse cause a one bit shift in each register.
  • For a fixed time of four clock pulses the content of A is transferred into B.
serial in parallel out shift registers
Serial In - Parallel Out Shift Registers
  • For this kind of register, data bits are entered serially in the same manner as discussed in the last section.  
  • The difference is the way in which the data bits are taken out of the register.  
  • Once the data are stored, each bit appears on its respective output line, and all bits are available simultaneously.
parallel in serial out shift registers
Parallel In - Serial Out Shift Registers
  • The circuit uses D flip-flops and NAND gates for entering data (ie, writing) to the register.
  • D0, D1, D2 and D3 are the parallel inputs, where D0 is the most significant bit and D3 is the least significant bit.  
  • To write data in, the mode control line is taken to LOW and the data is clocked in.  
  • The data can be shifted when the mode control line is HIGH as SHIFT is active high.
parallel in parallel out shift registers
Parallel In - Parallel Out Shift Registers
  • For parallel in - parallel out shift registers, all data bits appear on the parallel outputs immediately following the simultaneous entry of the data bits.  
  • The D\'s are the parallel inputs and the Q\'s are the parallel outputs.  
  • Once the register is clocked, all the data at the D inputs appear at the corresponding Q outputs simultaneously.
bidirectional shift register
Bidirectional shift register
  • A bidirectional, or reversible, shift register is one in which the data can be shift either left or right.  
  • One that can shift in only one direction is called a “unidirectional shift register”
  • If the Register has both shift and parallel-load capabilities, it is called a “shift register with parallel load”
  • A four-bit bidirectional shift register using D flip-flops is shown in next slide.
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