Big idea 2 d growth and dynamic homeostasis are influenced by changes in the environment
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Homeostasis in a Changing Environment. Big Idea 2.D: Growth and dynamic homeostasis are influenced by changes in the environment. Essential Knowledge.

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Big Idea 2.D: Growth and dynamic homeostasis are influenced by changes in the environment

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Homeostasis in a Changing Environment

Big Idea 2.D: Growth and dynamic homeostasis are influenced by changes in the environment


Essential Knowledge

  • 2D1: All biological systems from cells to organisms to populations, communities, and ecosystems are affected by complex biotic and abiotic interactions involving exchange of matter and free energy.

  • 2D2: Homeostatic mechanisms reflect both common ancestry and divergence due to adaptation in different environments.

  • 2D3: Biological systems are affected by disruptions to their dynamic homeostasis.


Organisms Respond to External Environments

What was this called???


External Environment

Made up of Biotic Things: Living


External Environment

And Abiotic Things: Not Living


TPS: With your partner, make a list of 4 other biotic and 4 other abiotic factors that may affect organisms in an environment.


Case Study: Biofilms

  • Bacterial cells attach to each other to form biofilms (a protective protein matrix cover)

  • Communal group for protection and shared nutrients

  • Grow with limited nutrients.


Cells Interact with Biotic/Abiotic Factors


Organisms Interact with Biotic/Abiotic Factors

  • Organisms access to nutrients is affected by other factors

  • i.e. symbiosis, predator-prey, nutrient availability etc


Interactions Among Organisms

  • Symbiosis: relationship b/t 2 species

  • Mutualism (+,+)

  • Commensalism (+,0)

  • Parasitism (+,-)


Mutualism

  • Both Species Benefit

  • Rhinos and oxpeckers


Commensalism

  • One member is helped, the other neither benefits or is harmed

  • Cows and Cattle Egrets


Parasitism

  • + and - relationship

  • parasite benefits, host loses

  • parasite usually smaller than host

Leech Bite, Thailand

Lamprey


Ecosystems’ Stability is based upon interactions w/ biotic or abiotic factors


Evolution of Homeostatic Mechanisms

  • Some mechanisms are conserved- showing common ancestry

  • Others have changed, demonstrating divergent evolution (due to changing envs)


Case Study: Nitrogenous Waste Removal

  • All animals produce N byproducts

  • Animals in diff. envs. have evolved different mechanisms for excreting these wastes


Ammonia, NH3

  • Toxic byproduct of protein degradation

  • In dilute concentrations is no big deal, so aquatic orgs can excrete it into water


Urea

  • Mammals convert NH3 into urea  travels through blood to kidneys and is excreted w/ water and other substances as urine


Solid Uric Acid

  • In birds and reptiles (and some desert mammals) N waste is excreted as a solid

  • Prevents H2O loss and buildup of H2O waste in shell of an egg


Evolution of Circulatory System Shows Common Ancestry and Divergence


Evolution of Circulatory System Shows Common Ancestry and Divergence


Disruptions at the Molecular/Cellular Level Affect Organisms Homeostasis

  • Exs: viral infection of a cell, allergies, or dehydration in Willis’s body ;)


Disruptions to Ecosystems Affect Homeostasis

  • Exs: food chain disruptions, natural disasters, salination (adding salt)


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