Venus and mercury
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Venus and Mercury. The Inner Planets. Venus. Only a bit smaller than Earth Nearest planet (26 million miles) Shows phases as it orbits the Sun Most circular orbit Atmosphere mostly Carbon Dioxide 90 times as dense as Earth Runaway Greenhouse Effect Surface Temperature 450 C (850 F).

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Venus and Mercury

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Venus and mercury

Venus and Mercury


The inner planets

The Inner Planets


Venus

Venus

  • Only a bit smaller than Earth

  • Nearest planet (26 million miles)

  • Shows phases as it orbits the Sun

  • Most circular orbit

  • Atmosphere mostly Carbon Dioxide

    • 90 times as dense as Earth

    • Runaway Greenhouse Effect

    • Surface Temperature 450 C (850 F)


Venus odd rotation

Venus’ Odd Rotation

  • Venus Rotates in 243 days relative to the stars

  • Longer than its year (225 days)

  • Solar Day = 117 days

  • You can jog as fast as Venus rotates

  • Opposite to all other planets’ rotation (retrograde)

  • Why?

    • Mega-Impact?

    • Tidal Effects?

    • Possible tidal lock on Earth?


Venus from pioneer venus orbiter

Venus from Pioneer Venus Orbiter


Polar view of venus

Polar View of Venus


Topography of venus

Topography of Venus


Earth elevations

Earth Elevations


Radar map of venus

Radar Map of Venus


Radar map of venus1

Radar Map of Venus


Surface of venus

Surface of Venus


Venus has craters

Venus has Craters


Venus is volcanic

Venus is Volcanic


Pancake volcanoes

“Pancake” Volcanoes


Channel on venus

Channel on Venus


Coronas

Coronas


How coronas form

How Coronas Form?


Venus differs from earth in one important way

Venus Differs from Earth in One Important Way:

  • Venus has no Plate Tectonics

  • Earth’s internal heat causes hot material to rise within Earth and plates to move

  • Venus’ crust is too rigid

  • Heat builds up and escapes in planet-wide volcanic activity

  • Last event about 600 million years ago


Why venus has no plate tectonics

Why Venus Has No Plate Tectonics

  • It’s Hot! We’d expect hot rocks to be less rigid, not more!

  • But it’s also dry! Dry rocks are ten times stronger at high temperatures than wet rocks.

  • Earth is wet. That affects not just the outside, but the inside as well.


Did venus once have oceans

Did Venus Once Have Oceans?

  • Resurfacing means no visible trace of early history

  • Deuterium: Ghost of a Vanished Ocean?

    • Deuterium is hydrogen with one neutron

    • Twice as heavy as normal hydrogen

    • Less likely to escape

    • D/H on Venus 100x that of Earth

  • Photodissociation + Stripping

    • Venus lacks magnetic field


Venus and the da vinci code

Venus and the Da Vinci Code

  • 13 Venus years = 13 x 224.7 = 2921.1 days

  • 8 Earth Years = 8 x 365.25 = 2922 days

  • 5 Synodic periods of Earth and Venus = 5 x 583.9 = 2919.5 days

  • 1/5 of a circle = 72 degrees

  • In 583.9 days, Earth moves 360 + 215.5 degrees (almost 360 + 3 x 72)

  • In 583.9 days, Venus moves 720 + 215.5 degrees


Venus and earth

Venus and Earth

  • 13 Venus years = 13 x 224.7 = 2921.1 days

  • 8 Earth Years = 8 x 365.25 = 2922 days

  • 5 Synodic periods of Earth and Venus = 5 x 583.9 = 2919.5 days

  • 12 Venus rotations = 2916 days

  • Venus shows nearly the same face to Earth every 584 days.


Venus and earth1

Venus and Earth


Mercury

Mercury

  • Closest planet to Sun

  • Very elliptical orbit (e = .205)

  • Only 3000 miles (5000 km) in diameter

  • Rotation locked to Sun: 3 rotations in 2 orbits (58 days)

  • Moon-like on the outside (craters)

  • Earth-like on the inside (dense core, magnetic field)


Mercury s rotation

Mercury’s Rotation


Mercury s interior

Mercury’s Interior

  • Density = 5.43 (Earth = 5.5)

  • Much smaller than Earth, less pressure inside

  • Core about 2/3 of Mercury’s diameter (Earth = ½)

  • Mega-Impact may have blown away silicate outer part


Mercury from mariner 10 1973

Mercury from Mariner 10, 1973


Mercury has craters

Mercury has Craters

  • Not as dense as on Moon

  • Most of Mercury covered with lava plains (intercrater plains)


Mercury has a huge impact basin the caloris basin

Mercury has a huge impact basin, the Caloris Basin


Because of mercury s locked rotation it has two hot poles

Because of Mercury’s locked rotation, it has two “hot poles”


And mercury has the last thing you d expect to find ice caps

And Mercury has the last thing you’d expect to find: ice caps


Mercury s ice seems to be hiding in polar craters

Mercury’s ice seems to be hiding in polar craters


We re b a a ck

We’re B-a-a-ck


Spider crater

“Spider” Crater


Caloris basin

Caloris Basin


Volcano on mercury

Volcano on Mercury


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