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Nucleation Rates Of Ethanol And Methanol Using SAFT And PC-SAFT EOSsPowerPoint Presentation

Nucleation Rates Of Ethanol And Methanol Using SAFT And PC-SAFT EOSs

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### Nucleation Rates Of Ethanol And Methanol Using SAFT And PC-SAFT EOSs

### Thank You ETHANOL based on PC-SAFT EOS.

Fawaz Hrahsheh

Advisor ::Dr. Abdalla Obeidat

Co-advisor ::Dr. H. Al-Ghanem

Department of Physics

JUST

Outline

- Definition
- Thermodynamics of nucleation
- Kinetics of Nucleation
- Versions of nucleation
- Results of equations of state & subroutine
- Results of Nucleation rate & subroutine
- Conclusions

Definition of Nucleation And Nucleation Rate

- The nucleation is the process of formation of the critical size droplet (embryo) which has the ability to grow spontaneously till the phase transition.
- The nucleation rate is the rate of formation of the critical size droplets per unit volume per unit time.

Thermodynamics of nucleation

- The vapor which can nucleate is the supersaturated vapor
- The work of formation consists from two term
- The critical size droplets have the ability to grow spontaneously
- The maximum work of formation equals the difference in the Helmholts free energy

Metastable and unstable regions for the van der Waals fluid

- The binodal curve (solid dome)separates one-phase and two-phase states
- TC = critical temperature
- The spinodal curve (dashed dome) separates metastable and unstable states
- One true horizontal isotherm is shown

Schematic pressure – temperature phase diagram for a pure substance

SPINODAL

LINE

- Solid black lines represent points of equilibrium two-phase coexistence
- c is the critical point
- b is the triple point
- When, say, gas is forced to cross lines ab or bc it is no longer the thermodynamically stable phase.
- The transition to the new stable phase is not instantaneous.

-The work of Formation is the work which is needed To form the critical size droplet

-The Helmholtz free energy before the formation

equals:

-The Helmholtz free energy after the formation

equals:

The Maximum Work Of Formation

- The maximum work of formation consists from two terms: the bulk (volumetric) term and the surface term
- At critical size, There is an thermodynamic equilibrium

The Maximum work of formation composite by two terms.

Becker and Döring assumed that the clusters change its size by absorbing single molecule (1-cluster) or by emitting single molecule (reversible process)

The difference between the formation of n-size

cluster by absorbing single molecule into (n-1)-

size cluster and its destruction by emitting

single molecule equals:

At steady state

Then

-The n-size cluster can be formed by emitting single molecule from (n+1)-cluster and it can be destroyed by absorbing single molecule

-the total time-variation of concentration of –size

droplet is the difference between the two methods

At equilibrium

And

The Concentration Of n-size Droplet At molecule from (n+1)-cluster and it can be destroyed by absorbing single molecule

Equilibrium Equals

And

Then, we can reach to

Three versions of molecule from (n+1)-cluster and it can be destroyed by absorbing single molecule classical theory

●Gibbs’s exact formula:

● version 1: use bulk surface tension for

● Version 2: liquid droplet is incompressible,

- and
● Version 3: the vapor is an ideal gas

- and
- S =Pv /Pve (Supersaturation Ratio)

Pressure vs density isotherm molecule from (n+1)-cluster and it can be destroyed by absorbing single molecule

SAFT & PC-SAFT EOSs molecule from (n+1)-cluster and it can be destroyed by absorbing single molecule

●SAFT…Statistical Associating Fluid Theory

● PC-SAFT….Perturbed-Chain Statistical

Associating Fluid Theory

SAFT and PC-SAFT EOS molecule from (n+1)-cluster and it can be destroyed by absorbing single molecule

●A is the reduced free helmholtz energy

●The association term is just for polar fluids

Equations for equilibrium molecule from (n+1)-cluster and it can be destroyed by absorbing single molecule

and

Subroutine Of Equilibrium Vapor-liquid pressure molecule from (n+1)-cluster and it can be destroyed by absorbing single molecule

Do

rho(1)=guess1

rho(2)=guess2

k(1,1)=dp(rho(1),T)

k(1,2)=-dp(rho(2),T)

k(2,1)=dmew(rho(1),T)

k(2,2)=-dmew(rho(2),T)

f(1)=p(rho(2),T)-p(rho(1),T)

f(2)=mew(rho(2),T)-mew(rho(1),T)

z=k(2,1)/k(1,1)

k(2,1)=0.0d0

f(2)=f(2)-(z*f(1))

k(2,2)=k(2,2)-(z*k(1,2))

u(2)=f(2)/k(2,2)

u(1)=(f(1)-k(1,2)*u(2))/k(1,1)

rho(1)=rho(1)+u(1)

rho(2)=rho(2)+u(2)

error1=0.0d0

do i=1,2

error1=error1+f(i)**2

end do

error1=dsqrt(error1)

if (error1<error) exit

guess1=rho(1)

guess2=rho(2)

end do

end do

Binodal points of ethanol And molecule from (n+1)-cluster and it can be destroyed by absorbing single molecule

methanol using SAFT and PC-SAFT

Nucleation rate is given by molecule from (n+1)-cluster and it can be destroyed by absorbing single molecule

where

Subroutine Of P-form molecule from (n+1)-cluster and it can be destroyed by absorbing single molecule

gama=(24.23d0-0.09254d0*(T-273.15d0))*1.0d-3

Vl=(1.0d0/(rowl*N))

W1=((16.0d0/3.0d0)*b*(gama**3)/((Pl-Pv))**2)

W2=(W1/(Kl*T))

Jo=(dsqrt((2.0d0*gama)/(b*(MM/N)))*Vl*(Pv/(Kl*T))**2)*1.0d-12

Jp=(Jo*dexp(-W2))

Subroutine Of S-form

gama=(24.23d0-0.09254d0*(T-273.15d0))*1.0d-3

W3=((16.0d0/3.0d0)*b*(Vl**2)*(gama**3)/&

&((Kl*T*dlog(satu))**2))*1.0d-12 !(n.m)

W4=(W3/(Kl*T))

Jo=(dsqrt((2.0d0*gama)/(b*(MM/N)))*Vl*(Pv/(Kl*T))**2)*1.0d-12

Js=Jo*dexp(-W3/(Kl*T)) !Nucleation rate

Subroutine Of Actual Pressure molecule from (n+1)-cluster and it can be destroyed by absorbing single molecule

Pg=satu*p(equg,T)

guess3=1.20d0*equg

fun1=p(guess3,t)-Pg

dfun1=dp(guess3,t)

do while(dabs(fun1/dfun1)>error)

fun1=p(guess3,t)-Pg

dfun1=dp(guess3,t)

root1=guess3-fun1/dfun1

guess3=rowg

Subroutine Of Internal Pressure

mewg=mew(rowg,t)

guess=1.2d0*equl

fun=mew(guess,t)-mewg

dfun=dmew(guess,t)

do while(dabs(fun/dfun)>error)

fun=mew(guess,t)-mewg

dfun=dmew(guess,t)

root=guess-fun/dfun

guess=rowl

end do

Gibbs’s formula improves classical nucleation rates for METHANOL based on SAFT EOS.

Gibbs’s formula improves classical nucleation rates for ETHANOL based on PC-SAFT EOS.

Conclusions ETHANOL based on PC-SAFT EOS.

- the methanol and ethanol gases are not ideal.
- SAFT and PC-SAFT EOSs improve the binodals for methanol and ethanol at low temperature where the deviation from the experimental values approach zero.
- SAFT EOS gives better for the nucleation rates by one order of magnitude when compare with PC-SAFT EOS for methanol, that was clear in fitting value of nucleation rates for SAFT EOS was and PC-SAFT EOS was .

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