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Chapter 3 ~ Chemical Reactions. Balancing Combustion Reactions. Write a balanced equation for the combustion of butane. Chemical Equilibrium. Solution Terms. Solvent Solute Homogeneous mixture Aqueous Electrolyte (strong / weak) Nonelectrolyte.

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Chapter 3 chemical reactions

Chapter 3 ~ Chemical Reactions


Balancing combustion reactions
Balancing Combustion Reactions

Write a balanced equation for the combustion of butane.



Solution terms
Solution Terms

  • Solvent

  • Solute

  • Homogeneous mixture

  • Aqueous

  • Electrolyte (strong / weak)

  • Nonelectrolyte



Exercise 3.4 ~

Predict the solubility of the following compounds:

LiNO3

CaCl2

CuO

NaC2H3O2


List as many types of chemical reactions as you can.

Give an example of each type of reaction


Precipitation reactions aka double replacement rxns
Precipitation Reactions aka: Double Replacement Rxns

Exercise 3.5 ~ Will precipitation reactions occur between:

Sodium carbonate and copper (II) chloride

Potassium carbonate and

sodium nitrate

Nickel(II) chloride and

potassium hydroxide


Writing net ionic equations
Writing Net Ionic Equations

Exercise 3.6

Write balanced net ionic equations for:

Aluminum chloride and sodium phosphate

Iron(III) chloride and potassium hydroxide

Lead(II) nitrate and potassium chloride


Acid base reactions
Acid / Base Reactions

Characteristics of Characteristics of

Acids Bases



Using the Activity Series

Al + CuCl2

Cu + NaCl

Zn + HCl

Cu + HCl

Ca + H2O


Naming acids
Naming Acids

Binary Acids

Oxyacids


Acids and bases
Acids and Bases

Definitions:

Arrhenius Acid: an acid is a substance that ionizes in water to produce H+ or H3O+ ions

HCl + H2O

Arrhenius Base: a base produces

OH-ions in water

NaOH


Bronsted lowry acids and bases
Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases

Acid: a substance that donates a proton to any other substance

Base: a substance that accepts a proton from another substance

HNO3 + H2O

NH4+ + H2O

Fe(H2O)63+ + H2O

NH3 + H2O


Amphiprotic substances
Amphiprotic Substances

Act as a Bronsted acid OR a Bronsted base

HCO3 + H2O H3O+ + CO32-

OR HCO3 + H2O H2CO3 + OH-


Conjugate acid base pairs
Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs

HCO3 + H2O H3O+ + CO32-

Conjugate acid-base pairs differ by the presence of a _____________________________


Ionization of acids and bases
Ionization of Acids and Bases

Strong Acids

Weak Acids

Diprotic and polyprotic acids

Ionization of bases



Metal and nonmetal oxides
Metal and Nonmetal Oxides

  • CO2

  • SO2

  • SO3

  • NO2

  • CaO

  • MgO


Reactions of strong acids and strong bases
Reactions of Strong Acids and Strong Bases

HCl + NaOH

HNO3 + NaOH

H2SO4 + Ca(OH)2

Mg(OH)2 + HCl


Reactions of weak acids
Reactions of Weak Acids

  • Acetic Acid and sodium hydroxide


Gas forming reactions
Gas Forming Reactions

Acids + Carbonates

Calcium carbonate + HCl

Calcium carbonate + HC2H3O2

Acids + bicarbonates

NaCO3 + HC4H5O6


Gas forming reactions1
Gas Forming Reactions

  • Acids + sulfides

    Na2S + HCL


Gas forming reactions2
Gas Forming Reactions

  • Acids + sulfites

    Na2SO3 + HCl

  • Ammonium salts + bases

    NH4Cl + NaOH


Exercise 3.11

Write the equation for the reaction of barium carbonate and nitric acid

Write a balanced equation for the reaction of ammonium sulfate and sodium hydroxide


Driving forces for reactions
Driving Forces for Reactions

  • Precipitation Reactions

  • Gas forming reactions

  • Acid-base reactions

  • Oxidation-reduction reactions



CuSO4 and NaCl combine:




New Concepts:

Complex ion ~

Redox Reactions ~

Base Anhydride ~


Oxidation numbers
Oxidation Numbers

  • As opposed to valence number:


Rules for assigning oxidation numbers
Rules for Assigning Oxidation Numbers

  • Pure elements have oxidation numbers of 0

  • Single element ions have oxidation numbers equal to their charges

  • F always an oxidation number = -1

  • Cl, Br, I always = -1 except in compounds with O or F

  • H has an oxidation number of +1 unless it is a hydride ion (-1)

  • O has an oxidation number of -2 unless it is a peroxide (-1) or superoxide

  • Oxidation numbers of elements in polyatomic ions always = the charge of the ion

  • Oxidation numbers in compounds always add to 0.


Determining oxidation numbers
Determining Oxidation Numbers

  • Fe2O3

  • CO32-

  • H2SO4

  • NO21+


Oxidation reduction reactions
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Fe2O3(s) + 3CO(g) 2Fe(s) + 3CO2(g)


Redox reactions
Redox Reactions

  • Element oxidized

  • Element reduced

  • Oxidizing agent

  • Reducing agent


Breathalyzer reaction
Breathalyzer Reaction

3CH3CH2OH + 2Cr2O72- + 16 H3O+ 3CH3CO2H + 4 Cr3+ +27H2O


9 oxidation states of n
9 Oxidation States of N

  • NO31- NO2

  • NH4 1+ N2H4

  • NH2OH N2

  • N2O NO

  • N2O3


H 2 o 2 blood
H2O2 + Blood



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