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Chapter 3 ~ Chemical Reactions. Balancing Combustion Reactions. Write a balanced equation for the combustion of butane. Chemical Equilibrium. Solution Terms. Solvent Solute Homogeneous mixture Aqueous Electrolyte (strong / weak) Nonelectrolyte.

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Chapter 3 ~ Chemical Reactions

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Chapter 3 chemical reactions

Chapter 3 ~ Chemical Reactions

Balancing combustion reactions

Balancing Combustion Reactions

Write a balanced equation for the combustion of butane.

Chemical equilibrium

Chemical Equilibrium

Solution terms

Solution Terms

  • Solvent

  • Solute

  • Homogeneous mixture

  • Aqueous

  • Electrolyte (strong / weak)

  • Nonelectrolyte

Solubility of ionic compounds in water

Solubility of Ionic Compounds in Water

Chapter 3 chemical reactions

Exercise 3.4 ~

Predict the solubility of the following compounds:





Chapter 3 chemical reactions

List as many types of chemical reactions as you can.

Give an example of each type of reaction

Precipitation reactions aka double replacement rxns

Precipitation Reactions aka: Double Replacement Rxns

Exercise 3.5 ~ Will precipitation reactions occur between:

Sodium carbonate and copper (II) chloride

Potassium carbonate and

sodium nitrate

Nickel(II) chloride and

potassium hydroxide

Writing net ionic equations

Writing Net Ionic Equations

Exercise 3.6

Write balanced net ionic equations for:

Aluminum chloride and sodium phosphate

Iron(III) chloride and potassium hydroxide

Lead(II) nitrate and potassium chloride

Acid base reactions

Acid / Base Reactions

Characteristics of Characteristics of


Chapter 3 chemical reactions

HCl + Zn 

Chapter 3 chemical reactions

Using the Activity Series

Al + CuCl2

Cu + NaCl

Zn + HCl

Cu + HCl

Ca + H2O

Naming acids

Naming Acids

Binary Acids


Acids and bases

Acids and Bases


Arrhenius Acid: an acid is a substance that ionizes in water to produce H+ or H3O+ ions

HCl + H2O

Arrhenius Base: a base produces

OH-ions in water


Bronsted lowry acids and bases

Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases

Acid: a substance that donates a proton to any other substance

Base: a substance that accepts a proton from another substance

HNO3 + H2O

NH4+ + H2O

Fe(H2O)63+ + H2O

NH3 + H2O

Amphiprotic substances

Amphiprotic Substances

Act as a Bronsted acid OR a Bronsted base

HCO3 + H2O H3O+ + CO32-

OR HCO3 + H2O H2CO3 + OH-

Conjugate acid base pairs

Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs

HCO3 + H2O H3O+ + CO32-

Conjugate acid-base pairs differ by the presence of a _____________________________

Ionization of acids and bases

Ionization of Acids and Bases

Strong Acids

Weak Acids

Diprotic and polyprotic acids

Ionization of bases

Common acids and bases

Common Acids and Bases

Metal and nonmetal oxides

Metal and Nonmetal Oxides

  • CO2

  • SO2

  • SO3

  • NO2

  • CaO

  • MgO

Reactions of strong acids and strong bases

Reactions of Strong Acids and Strong Bases

HCl + NaOH


H2SO4 + Ca(OH)2

Mg(OH)2 + HCl

Reactions of weak acids

Reactions of Weak Acids

  • Acetic Acid and sodium hydroxide

Gas forming reactions

Gas Forming Reactions

Acids + Carbonates

Calcium carbonate + HCl

Calcium carbonate + HC2H3O2

Acids + bicarbonates

NaCO3 + HC4H5O6

Gas forming reactions1

Gas Forming Reactions

  • Acids + sulfides

    Na2S + HCL

Gas forming reactions2

Gas Forming Reactions

  • Acids + sulfites

    Na2SO3 + HCl

  • Ammonium salts + bases

    NH4Cl + NaOH

Chapter 3 chemical reactions

Exercise 3.11

Write the equation for the reaction of barium carbonate and nitric acid

Write a balanced equation for the reaction of ammonium sulfate and sodium hydroxide

Driving forces for reactions

Driving Forces for Reactions

  • Precipitation Reactions

  • Gas forming reactions

  • Acid-base reactions

  • Oxidation-reduction reactions

Chapter 3 chemical reactions




Chapter 3 chemical reactions

CuSO4 and NaCl combine:

Chapter 3 chemical reactions

Activity Series: Fe, Cu

Chapter 3 chemical reactions

Iron ions react with oxygen and water:

Chapter 3 chemical reactions

New Concepts:

Complex ion ~

Redox Reactions ~

Base Anhydride ~

Oxidation numbers

Oxidation Numbers

  • As opposed to valence number:

Rules for assigning oxidation numbers

Rules for Assigning Oxidation Numbers

  • Pure elements have oxidation numbers of 0

  • Single element ions have oxidation numbers equal to their charges

  • F always an oxidation number = -1

  • Cl, Br, I always = -1 except in compounds with O or F

  • H has an oxidation number of +1 unless it is a hydride ion (-1)

  • O has an oxidation number of -2 unless it is a peroxide (-1) or superoxide

  • Oxidation numbers of elements in polyatomic ions always = the charge of the ion

  • Oxidation numbers in compounds always add to 0.

Determining oxidation numbers

Determining Oxidation Numbers

  • Fe2O3

  • CO32-

  • H2SO4

  • NO21+

Oxidation reduction reactions

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Fe2O3(s) + 3CO(g) 2Fe(s) + 3CO2(g)

Redox reactions

Redox Reactions

  • Element oxidized

  • Element reduced

  • Oxidizing agent

  • Reducing agent

Breathalyzer reaction

Breathalyzer Reaction

3CH3CH2OH + 2Cr2O72- + 16 H3O+ 3CH3CO2H + 4 Cr3+ +27H2O

9 oxidation states of n

9 Oxidation States of N

  • NO31-NO2

  • NH4 1+N2H4

  • NH2OHN2

  • N2ONO

  • N2O3

H 2 o 2 blood

H2O2 + Blood

Chapter 3 chemical reactions

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