Chapter 3 chemical reactions
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Chapter 3 ~ Chemical Reactions. Balancing Combustion Reactions. Write a balanced equation for the combustion of butane. Chemical Equilibrium. Solution Terms. Solvent Solute Homogeneous mixture Aqueous Electrolyte (strong / weak) Nonelectrolyte.

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Chapter 3 ~ Chemical Reactions

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Chapter 3 ~ Chemical Reactions


Balancing Combustion Reactions

Write a balanced equation for the combustion of butane.


Chemical Equilibrium


Solution Terms

  • Solvent

  • Solute

  • Homogeneous mixture

  • Aqueous

  • Electrolyte (strong / weak)

  • Nonelectrolyte


Solubility of Ionic Compounds in Water


Exercise 3.4 ~

Predict the solubility of the following compounds:

LiNO3

CaCl2

CuO

NaC2H3O2


List as many types of chemical reactions as you can.

Give an example of each type of reaction


Precipitation Reactions aka: Double Replacement Rxns

Exercise 3.5 ~ Will precipitation reactions occur between:

Sodium carbonate and copper (II) chloride

Potassium carbonate and

sodium nitrate

Nickel(II) chloride and

potassium hydroxide


Writing Net Ionic Equations

Exercise 3.6

Write balanced net ionic equations for:

Aluminum chloride and sodium phosphate

Iron(III) chloride and potassium hydroxide

Lead(II) nitrate and potassium chloride


Acid / Base Reactions

Characteristics of Characteristics of

AcidsBases


HCl + Zn 


Using the Activity Series

Al + CuCl2

Cu + NaCl

Zn + HCl

Cu + HCl

Ca + H2O


Naming Acids

Binary Acids

Oxyacids


Acids and Bases

Definitions:

Arrhenius Acid: an acid is a substance that ionizes in water to produce H+ or H3O+ ions

HCl + H2O

Arrhenius Base: a base produces

OH-ions in water

NaOH


Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases

Acid: a substance that donates a proton to any other substance

Base: a substance that accepts a proton from another substance

HNO3 + H2O

NH4+ + H2O

Fe(H2O)63+ + H2O

NH3 + H2O


Amphiprotic Substances

Act as a Bronsted acid OR a Bronsted base

HCO3 + H2O H3O+ + CO32-

OR HCO3 + H2O H2CO3 + OH-


Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs

HCO3 + H2O H3O+ + CO32-

Conjugate acid-base pairs differ by the presence of a _____________________________


Ionization of Acids and Bases

Strong Acids

Weak Acids

Diprotic and polyprotic acids

Ionization of bases


Common Acids and Bases


Metal and Nonmetal Oxides

  • CO2

  • SO2

  • SO3

  • NO2

  • CaO

  • MgO


Reactions of Strong Acids and Strong Bases

HCl + NaOH

HNO3 + NaOH

H2SO4 + Ca(OH)2

Mg(OH)2 + HCl


Reactions of Weak Acids

  • Acetic Acid and sodium hydroxide


Gas Forming Reactions

Acids + Carbonates

Calcium carbonate + HCl

Calcium carbonate + HC2H3O2

Acids + bicarbonates

NaCO3 + HC4H5O6


Gas Forming Reactions

  • Acids + sulfides

    Na2S + HCL


Gas Forming Reactions

  • Acids + sulfites

    Na2SO3 + HCl

  • Ammonium salts + bases

    NH4Cl + NaOH


Exercise 3.11

Write the equation for the reaction of barium carbonate and nitric acid

Write a balanced equation for the reaction of ammonium sulfate and sodium hydroxide


Driving Forces for Reactions

  • Precipitation Reactions

  • Gas forming reactions

  • Acid-base reactions

  • Oxidation-reduction reactions


  • TEST TUBE WITH NAIL -

  • OBSERVATIONS:

  • EXPLANATIONS?????


CuSO4 and NaCl combine:


Activity Series: Fe, Cu


Iron ions react with oxygen and water:


New Concepts:

Complex ion ~

Redox Reactions ~

Base Anhydride ~


Oxidation Numbers

  • As opposed to valence number:


Rules for Assigning Oxidation Numbers

  • Pure elements have oxidation numbers of 0

  • Single element ions have oxidation numbers equal to their charges

  • F always an oxidation number = -1

  • Cl, Br, I always = -1 except in compounds with O or F

  • H has an oxidation number of +1 unless it is a hydride ion (-1)

  • O has an oxidation number of -2 unless it is a peroxide (-1) or superoxide

  • Oxidation numbers of elements in polyatomic ions always = the charge of the ion

  • Oxidation numbers in compounds always add to 0.


Determining Oxidation Numbers

  • Fe2O3

  • CO32-

  • H2SO4

  • NO21+


Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Fe2O3(s) + 3CO(g) 2Fe(s) + 3CO2(g)


Redox Reactions

  • Element oxidized

  • Element reduced

  • Oxidizing agent

  • Reducing agent


Breathalyzer Reaction

3CH3CH2OH + 2Cr2O72- + 16 H3O+ 3CH3CO2H + 4 Cr3+ +27H2O


9 Oxidation States of N

  • NO31-NO2

  • NH4 1+N2H4

  • NH2OHN2

  • N2ONO

  • N2O3


H2O2 + Blood


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