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Coupled modelling of soil thaw/freeze dynamics and runoff generation in permafrost landscapes, Upper Kolyma, Russia. Lebedeva L . 1, 4 , Semenova O. 2, 3 1 Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Centre 2 Gidrotehproekt Ltd 3 St. Petersburg State University 4 State Hydrological Institute

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Coupled modelling of soil thaw/freeze dynamics and runoff generation in permafrost landscapes, Upper Kolyma, Russia

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Coupled modelling of soil thaw freeze dynamics and runoff generation in permafrost landscapes upper kolyma russia

Coupled modelling of soil thaw/freeze dynamics and runoff generation in permafrost landscapes, Upper Kolyma, Russia

Lebedeva L.1,4, Semenova O.2,3

1Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Centre

2Gidrotehproekt Ltd

3St. Petersburg State University

4State Hydrological Institute

St. Petersburg, Russia

The study is partially supported by Russian-German Otto Schmidt Laboratory for Polar and Marine research


Variety of landscapes and complex process interactions

Variety of landscapes and complex process interactions

Bush tundra

Deep active layer

Subsurface runoff

Shallow active layer, surface runoff

Larch forest

Riparian vegetation

Bare rocks

www.hydrograph-model.ru


Motivation

Motivation

  • variety of landscapes and dominated flow formation mechanisms

  • sparse hydrometeorological network in North-Eastern Russia and nearly absence of research stations

  • observed environmental changes impact differently in diverse landscapes

    - analysis of active layer formation and flow generation mechanisms in mountainous permafrost landscapes of the Kolyma Water Balance Station (North-Eastern Russia)

    - simulate thaw/freeze depths and runoff in homogenious landscape typical for North-Eastern Russia using the Hydrograph model

    - develop and verify unified approach for hydrological modelling in changing permafrost environments of North-East of Russia

Objectives


Study area kolyma water balance station

Study area: Kolyma water-balance station

  • Mean air temperature is -11,40С

  • Mean annual precipitation 320 mm

  • Elevation ranges 800-1700 m

  • Variety of landscapes

  • Continuous permafrost with the thickness up to 400 m

  • Representative for the vast territories of Upper Kolyma River Basin


List of measurements conducted at kwbs

List of measurements conducted at KWBS


Scheme of the typical landscapes

Scheme of the typical landscapes

Bare rocks

Bush tundra

Sparse forest

Larch forest


The hydrograph model

The Hydrograph model

  • Process-based (explicitlyincludes all processes)

  • Observable parameters, no calibration (can be obtained apriori)

  • Common input daily data (air temperature and moisture, precipitation)

  • Free of scale problem (from soil column to large basin)

initially developed by Prof. YuryVinogradov

www.hydrograph-model.ru


Physical ground properties that drive the processes of active layer formation

Physicalgroundpropertiesthatdrivetheprocessesofactivelayerformation

www.hydrograph-model.ru


Coupled modelling of soil thaw freeze dynamics and runoff generation in permafrost landscapes upper kolyma russia

Soilthaw/freezeprocessesandrunoffformationType 1 – peatysoilsandsurfaceflow

Peaty soil is fully saturated with ice during snow melt. It thaws slowly and surface flow occurs.

infiltration into soil

surface flow

observed soil thaw depth

simulated soil thaw depth

observed runoff

simulated runoff

snow water equivalent


Coupled modelling of soil thaw freeze dynamics and runoff generation in permafrost landscapes upper kolyma russia

Soilthaw/freezeprocessesandrunoffformationType 2 – rockystratumandsubsurfaceflow

Snowmelt water is re-frozen in soil. Only subsurface flow is formed.

liquid water content in soil

ice content in soil

simulated soil thaw depth

observed runoff

simulated runoff

snow water equivalent


Stages of the soil thawing and spring flow formation bantsekina 2003

Stages of the soil thawing and spring flow formation (Bantsekina, 2003)

Data of ice content in the rocky stratum don’t exist. According to literature each year in freshet period 40-60 mm ground ice are formed. Modelling results for 1969-1990 show 21-48 mm.

flow dependence on air temperature


Observed and simulated thawing depths in bare rocks bush tundra and larch forest 1962

Observed and simulated thawing depths in bare rocks, bush tundra and larch forest, 1962

Bare rocks

Bush tundra

Larch forest


Runoff modelling at slope scale

Runoff modelling atslopescale

Yuzny Creek,

area 0.27 km2 , sparse forest

1980: NS = 0.74

Severny Creek,

area 0.33 km2, bush tundra

1978: NS = 0.86

1 – observed runoff, 2 – simulated runoff, 3 - precipitation

www.hydrograph-model.ru


Coupled modelling of soil thaw freeze dynamics and runoff generation in permafrost landscapes upper kolyma russia

Runoffmodellingatslopeandsmallscale

Morozova Creek

area 0.63 km2,

bare rocks

1979: NS = 0.79

Kontaktovy Creek, 21.2 km2, 1978, m3/s

1978: NS = 0.85

Landscape distribution:

Bare rock – 32 %

Bush tundra – 29 %

Sparse forest – 21 %

Larch forest – 18 %

1 – observed runoff, 2 – simulated runoff, 3 - precipitation


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Hydrograph model proved its capability to successfully describe soil thawing and freezing, water and ice dynamics in rocky stratum in diverse landscapes based on relatively simple algorithms and observable parameters.

  • Good agreement between observed and simulated active layer depth and runoff is achieved for small watersheds of the KWBS

  • Developed set of model parameters which are systematized according to main landscapes of the Upper Kolyma River basin might be transferred to other basins without specific observations

www.hydrograph-model.ru

Semenova O., Lebedeva L., Vinogradov Yu., 2013 Simulation of subsurface heat and water dynamics, and runoff generation in mountainous permafrost conditions, in the Upper Kolyma River basin, Russia. Hydrogeology Journal vol. 21, iss. 1, 107 – 119. DOI:10.1007/s10040-012-0936-1

www.hydrograph-model.ru


Coupled modelling of soil thaw freeze dynamics and runoff generation in permafrost landscapes upper kolyma russia

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