The civil war
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The Civil War. Warm Up. How might a civil war be worse than other wars? How would your life be affected if Philadelphia went into a civil war? What are some of the most critical resources needed to win a war? Who had the advantage at the onset of this war: The North or the South and why?.

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The Civil War

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The civil war

The Civil War


Warm up

Warm Up

  • How might a civil war be worse than other wars?

  • How would your life be affected if Philadelphia went into a civil war?

  • What are some of the most critical resources needed to win a war?

  • Who had the advantage at the onset of this war: The North or the South and why?


First shots fired

First Shots Fired

  • “ I am loath to close. We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passions may have strained, it must not break, our bonds of affection…”

    • Abraham Lincoln’s 2nd Inaugural Address

  • Lincoln assured the South that they were in no danger from his administration

  • BUT… Secession was illegal.

  • “A husband and wife may be divorced, but the different parts of the country cannot.”


First shots fired cont

First Shots Fired cont.

  • The Southern states took over many of the forts within their boarders.

  • People questioned whether he would oppose secession by force.

  • Some Union forts were located in Southern states.

  • Lincoln had a decision: What does he do about the forts still under Union/Federal control? Send reinforcements and start war or allow the forts to fall into Southern hands?

    • Fort Sumter--Charleston Harbor

    • Fort Pickens--Pensacola, Florida

  • Fort Sumter was running out of supplies


First shots fired cont1

First Shots Fired cont..

  • Lincoln decided not to send reinforcements

    • Thought it would mean bloodshed and no chance at reconciliation

  • Sent a naval expedition to supply the fort with food

  • Confederate leaders prevented the ships from bringing supplies through a military strategy

    • President Jefferson Davis of the CSA

  • April 12, 1861 the Confederates opened fire on Fort Sumter

  • The fort withstood 34 hours of bombing until it surrendered

  • The civil war had begun!!!


Bombarding of ft sumter

Bombarding of Ft. Sumter


First shots fired cont2

First Shots Fired cont..

  • Lincoln responded by calling 75,000 volunteers to bare arms

  • South responded by having 4 more states secede

    • VA, NC, AK, TN

  • After years of crises and compromise, the nation chose to settle their quarrel by force

  • Southerners called Lincoln’s actions-- unnecessary aggression

  • Lincoln said that Southern secession “rejected democracy!!”


Border states

Border States

  • These states held the key to victory in this war

    • DE, MD, KY, MO

  • They were all slave states, which bordered states where slavery was illegal

  • Why would they be so important?

  • LOCATION, LOCATION, LOCATION

  • Maryland was the most important border state

    • Why?????


Border states cont

Border States cont..

  • If Maryland seceded, then Washington D.C. would be cut off from the Union

  • Lincoln wanted to arrest Maryland lawmakers who backed the South, but did not

  • Pro-Union leaders eventually gained control of the Maryland legislature

  • Maryland stayed in the Union


Washington d c 1861

Washington D. C. 1861


Border states cont1

Border States cont..

  • Kentucky was also important to both sides because of its rivers

    • Why?? Who cares about rivers?

  • Union could use these rivers for invasion

  • Confederacy could use the rivers as a barrier

  • Kentucky was deeply divided about secession.

  • A Confederate invasion in 1861 prompted the state to stay in the Union

  • MO and DE stayed Union

  • Virginia split and West Virginia formed in 1863

  • 24 states= Union

  • 11 states= Confederacy


Strengths

Strengths

  • Union

    • Manpower: 22 million people

    • Resources

    • Factories

    • Railroads

    • Naval power and shipyards

    • President Abraham Lincoln

      • Convinced Northerners that democracy depended on preserving the Union

      • Convinced Northerners that the war was not about slavery-- it was about the South’s illegal actions


Strengths cont

Strengths cont..

  • Confederacy

    • Better, more able Generals

      • Robert E. Lee

    • Fought a defensive war

      • Northern supply lines stretched far

      • Knowledge of the land

    • Soldiers had more to fight for

      • Defending their homes


Strategies

Strategies

  • Confederacy

    • Defensive strategy (at first): did not want to conquer the North; only to be independent

      • “All we ask is to be left alone…”

        • CSA Pres. Jefferson Davis

    • Confederate leaders hoped the North would tire of the war, and accept Southern independence

    • KING COTTON-- as a way to win foreign support

      • Grew most of the cotton for Europe

      • Withheld cotton from Britain and France

        • Tried to make them aid their cause

    • As the war moved on, the South went on the offensive

      • Big victories meant low, Northern morale


Strategies1

Strategies

  • Union

    • Wanted to bring the South back to the Union

    • Anaconda Plan:Developed by Winfield Scott

      • Naval blockade of the South’s coastline

      • Designed to smother their economy

      • Prevents the transportation of goods or people

      • Also, gain control of the Mississippi R.

      • Split the Confederacy in two

    • Attack the Confederate capital if Richmond

      • Lincoln ordered an invasion summer of 1861


Anaconda plan

Anaconda Plan


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