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The Civil War. Warm Up. How might a civil war be worse than other wars? How would your life be affected if Philadelphia went into a civil war? What are some of the most critical resources needed to win a war? Who had the advantage at the onset of this war: The North or the South and why?.

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Presentation Transcript
warm up
Warm Up
  • How might a civil war be worse than other wars?
  • How would your life be affected if Philadelphia went into a civil war?
  • What are some of the most critical resources needed to win a war?
  • Who had the advantage at the onset of this war: The North or the South and why?
first shots fired
First Shots Fired
  • “ I am loath to close. We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passions may have strained, it must not break, our bonds of affection…”
    • Abraham Lincoln’s 2nd Inaugural Address
  • Lincoln assured the South that they were in no danger from his administration
  • BUT… Secession was illegal.
  • “A husband and wife may be divorced, but the different parts of the country cannot.”
first shots fired cont
First Shots Fired cont.
  • The Southern states took over many of the forts within their boarders.
  • People questioned whether he would oppose secession by force.
  • Some Union forts were located in Southern states.
  • Lincoln had a decision: What does he do about the forts still under Union/Federal control? Send reinforcements and start war or allow the forts to fall into Southern hands?
    • Fort Sumter--Charleston Harbor
    • Fort Pickens--Pensacola, Florida
  • Fort Sumter was running out of supplies
first shots fired cont1
First Shots Fired cont..
  • Lincoln decided not to send reinforcements
    • Thought it would mean bloodshed and no chance at reconciliation
  • Sent a naval expedition to supply the fort with food
  • Confederate leaders prevented the ships from bringing supplies through a military strategy
    • President Jefferson Davis of the CSA
  • April 12, 1861 the Confederates opened fire on Fort Sumter
  • The fort withstood 34 hours of bombing until it surrendered
  • The civil war had begun!!!
first shots fired cont2
First Shots Fired cont..
  • Lincoln responded by calling 75,000 volunteers to bare arms
  • South responded by having 4 more states secede
    • VA, NC, AK, TN
  • After years of crises and compromise, the nation chose to settle their quarrel by force
  • Southerners called Lincoln’s actions-- unnecessary aggression
  • Lincoln said that Southern secession “rejected democracy!!”
border states
Border States
  • These states held the key to victory in this war
    • DE, MD, KY, MO
  • They were all slave states, which bordered states where slavery was illegal
  • Why would they be so important?
  • Maryland was the most important border state
    • Why?????
border states cont
Border States cont..
  • If Maryland seceded, then Washington D.C. would be cut off from the Union
  • Lincoln wanted to arrest Maryland lawmakers who backed the South, but did not
  • Pro-Union leaders eventually gained control of the Maryland legislature
  • Maryland stayed in the Union
border states cont1
Border States cont..
  • Kentucky was also important to both sides because of its rivers
    • Why?? Who cares about rivers?
  • Union could use these rivers for invasion
  • Confederacy could use the rivers as a barrier
  • Kentucky was deeply divided about secession.
  • A Confederate invasion in 1861 prompted the state to stay in the Union
  • MO and DE stayed Union
  • Virginia split and West Virginia formed in 1863
  • 24 states= Union
  • 11 states= Confederacy
  • Union
    • Manpower: 22 million people
    • Resources
    • Factories
    • Railroads
    • Naval power and shipyards
    • President Abraham Lincoln
      • Convinced Northerners that democracy depended on preserving the Union
      • Convinced Northerners that the war was not about slavery-- it was about the South’s illegal actions
strengths cont
Strengths cont..
  • Confederacy
    • Better, more able Generals
      • Robert E. Lee
    • Fought a defensive war
      • Northern supply lines stretched far
      • Knowledge of the land
    • Soldiers had more to fight for
      • Defending their homes
  • Confederacy
    • Defensive strategy (at first): did not want to conquer the North; only to be independent
      • “All we ask is to be left alone…”
        • CSA Pres. Jefferson Davis
    • Confederate leaders hoped the North would tire of the war, and accept Southern independence
    • KING COTTON-- as a way to win foreign support
      • Grew most of the cotton for Europe
      • Withheld cotton from Britain and France
        • Tried to make them aid their cause
    • As the war moved on, the South went on the offensive
      • Big victories meant low, Northern morale
  • Union
    • Wanted to bring the South back to the Union
    • Anaconda Plan:Developed by Winfield Scott
      • Naval blockade of the South’s coastline
      • Designed to smother their economy
      • Prevents the transportation of goods or people
      • Also, gain control of the Mississippi R.
      • Split the Confederacy in two
    • Attack the Confederate capital if Richmond
      • Lincoln ordered an invasion summer of 1861