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Geocoding is the process of plotting geographic locations for data stored in tabular format.Address Geocoding is the process of creating geometric representations for locations (such as points) from addresses in a non-spatial, tabular format. . . Geocoding Examples. Emergency dispatch operators ge

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2. Today Evaluations Review what’s happening next week Geocoding Ponder the future of GIS Geocoding Tutorial (7.1 only)

3. Geocoding is the process of plotting geographic locations for data stored in tabular format. Address Geocoding is the process of creating geometric representations for locations (such as points) from addresses in a non-spatial, tabular format

4. Geocoding Examples

5. Address geocoding The objective is to match nontoplogical addresses in data files (.txt, .dbf, .mdb) called event tables to topological references in a reference theme.

7. Address geocoding Sources for reference themes US – Census Bureau TIGER (Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing) Canada – Statistics Canada AMF (Area Master Files) UK – Royal Mail PAF (Postcode Address File)

8. Address geocoding TIGER, AMF, and PAF use different structures, BUT all use a topological model that contains a street network and address ranges for both sides of every street.

9. Address geocoding The software module that performs the geocoding is usually called the geocoding editor. ArcMap’s geocoding editor is as follows: we select Geocode > Addresses, and then specify 1) an event table, 2) a reference theme, and 3) an output shapefile.

10. Number 123 Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Street Name 123 Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Street Type 123 Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Direction, suffix 123 Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Direction, prefix 123 Oak ST, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Unit Number 123 Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Zone, city 123 Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Zone, zip code 123 Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Items for Single Number Street Address: Address Unit City Zip Code 123 Oak ST W Apt. 2 Pittsburgh 15213 Address Components

11. Linear Address Matching (Streets) Urban street maps four street address digits ranging from low to high for each side of a street segment. Left_from Left_to Right_from Right_to Street_name Type 101 199 100 198 OAK ST

12. Address Matching

13. Alias Tables DBF Table (whitehouse.dbf): Alias Address Casa Blanca 1500 Pennsylvania Ave The White House 1500 Pennsylvania Ave White House 1500 Pennsylvania Ave Washington White House 1500 Pennsylvania Ave

14. Address Matching in ArcGIS

15. Address Matching in ArcMap Create a new Address Locator in ArcCatalog - Q: What is an address locator? - A: An address locator “defines the process for translating nonspatial descriptions of places, such as street addresses, into spatial data that can be displayed as features on a map” (GIS Dictionary - ESRI Support, Accessed April 1, 2008)

21. A spatial join creates a choropleth map

22. Only do 7-1 (Geocode household hazardous waste event participants by zip code) Due May 11

23. Some geocoding sites http://zip4.usps.com/zip4/welcome.jsp http://maps.google.com/ http://www.geocode.com/geocode.htm http://www.mapquest.com http://www.zipinfo.com

24. The future of GIS

25. “When GIS is the pinnacle of everything, geography loses. What is happening is that many GIS users have no knowledge of geography. With a few clicks of a button a GIS jockey can describe data's distribution but cannot explain why things are the way they are. A monkey can do that work.”

26. According to Jack Dangermond (2008) “My forecast is that as society becomes familiar with looking at things through geospatial visualization, they will be increasingly interested in services that go beyond simple maps and images. GIS servers managed by public and private GIS organizations will be used to provide these kinds of complementing services.” Baumann: What developments in GIS do you anticipate in the next 10 years? Tomlinson: A lot of the current trends are going to continue. Hardware will continue to get cheaper and more powerful. Software will get easier to use and more robust. I hope the universities will continue to expand their course offerings to meet the growing need for GIS professionals. Senior management will become increasingly aware of the benefits that accrue from the use of GIS in their organizations. We will see more countries adopting national policies, and GIS will be an important part of cabinet-level discussions. I hope that trained geographers will become a part of national decision-making processes. Also, I think that high-level military personnel should have a good knowledge of the capabilities and potential of a GIS. I‘m very positive about the future of GIS. It‘s the right technology at the right time. When I think of all the major problems that we face throughout the world today - overpopulation, food shortages, reduced agricultural production, adverse climate change, poverty - these are all quintessentially geographic problems. These problems are all concerned with the human relationship to the land, and this is where GIS can make its biggest contribution. GIS is the technology of our times and is uniquely suited to assist in solving the problems that we face.Baumann: What developments in GIS do you anticipate in the next 10 years? Tomlinson: A lot of the current trends are going to continue. Hardware will continue to get cheaper and more powerful. Software will get easier to use and more robust. I hope the universities will continue to expand their course offerings to meet the growing need for GIS professionals. Senior management will become increasingly aware of the benefits that accrue from the use of GIS in their organizations. We will see more countries adopting national policies, and GIS will be an important part of cabinet-level discussions. I hope that trained geographers will become a part of national decision-making processes. Also, I think that high-level military personnel should have a good knowledge of the capabilities and potential of a GIS. I‘m very positive about the future of GIS. It‘s the right technology at the right time. When I think of all the major problems that we face throughout the world today - overpopulation, food shortages, reduced agricultural production, adverse climate change, poverty - these are all quintessentially geographic problems. These problems are all concerned with the human relationship to the land, and this is where GIS can make its biggest contribution. GIS is the technology of our times and is uniquely suited to assist in solving the problems that we face.

27. According to Roger Tomlinson (2009) Baumann: What developments in GIS do you anticipate in the next 10 years? Tomlinson: A lot of the current trends are going to continue. Hardware will continue to get cheaper and more powerful. Software will get easier to use and more robust. I hope the universities will continue to expand their course offerings to meet the growing need for GIS professionals. Senior management will become increasingly aware of the benefits that accrue from the use of GIS in their organizations. We will see more countries adopting national policies, and GIS will be an important part of cabinet-level discussions. I hope that trained geographers will become a part of national decision-making processes. Also, I think that high-level military personnel should have a good knowledge of the capabilities and potential of a GIS. I‘m very positive about the future of GIS. It‘s the right technology at the right time. When I think of all the major problems that we face throughout the world today - overpopulation, food shortages, reduced agricultural production, adverse climate change, poverty - these are all quintessentially geographic problems. These problems are all concerned with the human relationship to the land, and this is where GIS can make its biggest contribution. GIS is the technology of our times and is uniquely suited to assist in solving the problems that we face.

28. Web-based data access ArcIMS (Internet Map Server) provides GIS-based services w/out GIS software “GIS for everyone”! server-based mapping and basic analysis for web mapping applications Business marketing/advertising analysis business intelligence systems Projects integrating time urban growth/planning RS, NOAA environmental change/monitoring Health care/epidemiology (CDC, NIH, State Health Depts) Social sciences (survey, interview, census data) Military (especially GPS) Portable device software/products Large companies w/ out much GIS knowledge Open source GIS Some potentially hot markets?

29. Where is GIS going? GISday summary of answers: Web-based information sharing so Grandma Jones can use it “do it yourself” online interactive multiple orgs using same GIS As decision making “proof” “prove it” visually - people want to “see” advantages marketing analysis Real-time applications transportation (bus syst., pizza, cell phone “where the hell am I”) medical inter and intranet Security applications “The war is being fought with GIS” Interoperability to share data (ESRI guy) For maintenance of networks (pipes, utilities) Research part will stay same – as needed (ESRI guy) Less emphasis on standards and more on “filters”

30. Geospatial Intelligence, Middle East Conference (5 10/13, 2009) Enhancing National Security And Enabling Military Support By Utilizing 21st Century Geospatial Intelligence Capabilities Effectively Exploiting Geospatial Intelligence To Enhance Regional Security And Support Future Battle Command The Operational Case For Effective Geospatial Intelligence Geospatial Intelligence Support To Military Operations Motion Imagery – An Essential Part Of An Enhanced All Source GEOINT Exploitation Environment UAV Acquired Geospatial Intelligence Information: Tactical And Future Applications Case-Study: DigitalGlobe - Imagery For Crisis Operations Keeping Our Secrets Secret: Effective Acquisition Of Assured Complex Systems Case Study: Utilizing Collaborative Geospatial Intelligence To Support Operations: The EU Satellite Centre Developing Effective Geospatial Intelligence Capabilities That Meet The Needs Of Multiple Stakeholders The Impact Of Spatial Data Quality On Decision Making Geographic Information: A Key Driver For Modern Regional Development Making Sense Of The Deluge: Integration Of Data, Accessibility To The Information And Exploitation Of The Geospatial Intelligence The Integration Of Defense Geospatial Intelligence Case Study: Exploiting Geospatial Technology To Investigate Criminal And Terrorist Activities And Improve Civil Defense: The D-SCENT Project Enhancing Interoperability: Heading For The ‘Too Hard’ Basket? Utilizing Space-Base Commercial Observation Capabilities To Enhance National And Regional Security Assessing The Possibilities Of Establishing A Regional Space Agency To Develop Intelligence Capabilities Addressing The Challenge Of Achieving True Interoperability Enhancing Regional Intelligence Infrastructure

31. What about geovisualization? It too will follow the money spatial data mining for: marketing/advertising banking/stock market/real estate (location, location, location……) animation/video games/movies virtual tourism/ virtual real estate military/pilot training What about research? used with hypothesis testing (this is happening now) knowledge discovery in databases (patterns) molecular/cosmic scales (non-human scales) genetic engineering/human imaging archaeology, geology, oil exploration, climatology, oceanography

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