Children as liars and targets of lies
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CHILDREN AS LIARS AND TARGETS OF LIES. CHILDREN AND THEIR PERCEPTIONS OF LYING. 92% OF FIVE YEAR OLDS SAY IT IS ALWAYS WRONG TO LIE 28% OF TEN YEAR OLDS SAY IT IS ALWAYS WRONG TO LIE. 2/3 OF FIRST GRADERS SAID THEIR PARENTS COULD TELL IF THEY WERE LYING

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CHILDREN AND THEIR PERCEPTIONS OF LYING

  • 92% OF FIVE YEAR OLDS SAY IT IS ALWAYS WRONG TO LIE

  • 28% OF TEN YEAR OLDS SAY IT IS ALWAYS WRONG TO LIE


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CHILDREN’S DEVELOPMENTAL DECEPTION SKILLS WERE LYING

  • EARLY PERIOD (APPROX. 2-6 YRS)

    • VERBAL FANTASY, PRETENSE PLAY, “THINGS YOU AREN’T SUPPOSED TO SAY LIKE “DIRTY” WORDS, ERRORS/MISTAKES

    • TRUTH BELIEVED TO MATCH REALITY WHILE LIES DON’T

    • LIE TO AVOID PUNISHMENT; NOT TO MISLEAD

    • HAVE LITTLE SENSE OF OTHER’S PERSPECTIVE


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  • MIDDLE CHILDHOOD (APPROX. 5-9 YRS) WERE LYING

    • SOME ATTEMPTS TO MANIPULATE BELIEFS, BUT COMMONLY ACT AS IF TARGET WILL SIMPLY ACCEPT THEIR MANIPULATION

    • OFTEN LACK UNDERSTANDING THAT TARGET MAY BE TRYING TO DETECT THEIR DECEPTION AND MAY EVEN TRY TO DECEIVE THEM


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  • LATER CHILDHOOD (APPROX. 7-12 YRS) WERE LYING

    • MORE CONVINCING LIARS

    • CAN MANIPULATE TARGET’S BELIEF ABOUT THEIR INTENTIONS--REALIZING TARGET IS TRYING TO PERCEIVE THEIR MOTIVES


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WHY DO CHILDREN LIE? NEED TO BE EFFECTIVE ARE DEVELOPED. THESE SKILLS ARE:

  • THEY LIE WHEN THE MOTIVATIONAL STRUCTURE IS TILTED TOWARD THE NEED TO LIE--JUST LIKE ADULTS DO

    • YOUNG CHILDREN LIE TO AVOID PUNISHMENT

    • LATER THEY LIE TO GET REWARDS (E.G., CANDY)


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MICHAEL LEWIS’ STUDIES THINGS WHICH WILL MAKE THEM MORE SOCIALLY ATTRACTIVE

  • STUDIED CHILDREN FROM ALMOST AGE 3 TO AGE 6

  • IN HIS “DON’T PEEK” STUDIES, ABOUT 90% PEEKED. OF THOSE, 38% CONFESSED (MOSTLY BOYS) AND 38% LIED. 24% (MOSTLY GIRLS) HAD NO RESPONSE.


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QUESTION PEEKING

  • IF A CHILD PEEKS AND LIES TO AVOID PUNISHMENT, BUT DOES NOT INTEND TO CREATE A FALSE BELIEF IN ANOTHER PERSON, IS HE/SHE LYING?


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