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Greek and Roman Mythology. A Review of The Principal Gods and Goddesses. What is a myth?. A traditional story rooted in primitive folk beliefs of cultures Uses the supernatural to interpret natural events Explains the culture’s view of the universe and the nature of humanity.

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Greek and roman mythology

Greek and Roman Mythology

A Review

of

The Principal Gods and Goddesses


What is a myth
What is a myth?

  • A traditional story rooted in primitive folk beliefs of cultures

  • Uses the supernatural to interpret natural events

  • Explains the culture’s view of the universe and the nature of humanity


In the beginning
In the beginning...

  • …was Chaos (shapeless nothingness)

  • Chaos had two children:

    • Night (darkness)

    • Erebus (death)

  • “All was black, empty, silent, endless.”

  • Mysteriously, Love was born of darkness and death.


And then
And then...

  • When Love was born, order and beauty began to flourish.

  • Love created Light and Day.

  • Earth was created.

    • She was the solid ground, but also a personality.

  • The Earth bore Heaven to cover her and be a home for the gods.


The first parents
The First Parents

  • Mother Earth = Gaea (Gaia)

  • Father Heaven = Ouranos (Uranus)

  • They had three kinds of children:

    • Three monsters with 100 hands and 50 heads

    • Three cyclopes

    • The titans

  • These were the first characters that had the appearance of life, although it was unlike any life known to man.


The titans the elder gods
The Titans (The Elder Gods)

  • There were many of them.

  • Enormous size, incredible strength

  • Cronos (Saturn): Ruler of the titans

  • Rhea: Wife of Cronos

  • Ocean: River that encircled the world

  • Iapetus: Father of Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Atlas (also titans)


The principal gods

Cronos and Rhea were parents of

Zeus (Jupiter, Jove)

Poseidon (Neptune)

Hades (Pluto)

Hera (Juno)

Hestia (Vesta)

Demeter (Ceres)

Other Olympians include

Athena (Minerva)

Ares (Mars)

Hebe (Juventas)

Hephaestus (Vulcan)

Apollo (Apollo)

Artemis (Diana)

Hermes (Mercury)

Aphrodite (Venus)

Dionysus (Bacchus)

Persephone

The Principal Gods



Zeus

  • Roman Name: Jupiter (also Jove)

  • Supreme god of the Olympians.

  • Fathered many characters in mythology



Hera

  • Roman Name: Juno

  • Zeus’s sister and wife

  • Jealous protector of marriage

  • Punished the women Zeus fell in love with


Poseidon
Poseidon

  • Roman Name: Neptune

  • God of the Seas and Waters

  • “The Earthshaker”


Hades
Hades

  • Roman Name: Pluto

  • God of the Underworld/ Dead

  • Kidnapped Persephone


Hestia
Hestia

  • Roman Name: Vesta

  • Goddess of Home

  • Powerful Protector


Demeter
Demeter

  • Roman Name: Ceres

  • Goddess of the Harvest

  • A Goddess of the Earth


Athena
Athena

  • Roman Name: Minerva

  • Goddess of Wisdom and War

  • Sprang from Zeus’s head


Ares

  • Roman Name: Mars

  • God of War

  • Son of Zeus and Hera

  • Bloodthirsty and merciless


Hephaestus
Hephaestus

  • Roman Name: Vulcan (Mulciber)

  • God of Fire/Forge

  • Son of Zeus and Hera

  • Kind, unlike his brother


Apollo
Apollo

  • Roman Name: Apollo

  • God of Light/Sun and Music

  • Brother of Artemis


Artemis
Artemis

  • Roman Name: Diana

  • Goddess of the Moon/ Hunt

  • Sister to Apollo


Hermes
Hermes

  • Roman Name: Mercury

  • Messenger of the Gods

  • Appears in more myths than any other character


Aphrodite
Aphrodite

  • Roman Name: Venus

  • Goddess of Love and Beauty

  • Sprang from the ocean foam


Dionysus
Dionysus

  • Roman Name: Bacchus

  • God of Wine

  • Patron god of the Greek stage

  • A God of the Earth


Persephone
Persephone

  • Roman Name: Proserpina

  • Goddess of the Underworld

  • Daughter of Zeus and Demeter

  • Abducted by Hades


Hebe

  • Roman Name: Juventas

  • Goddess of Youth

  • Cupbearer to the Gods

  • Restored youth to the aged


Eros

  • Roman Name: Cupid

  • Young God of Love

  • Son of Aphrodite and Hephaestus


Iris

  • Goddess of the Rainbow

  • Messenger for Zeus and Hera

  • Daughter of the titan Thaumus and the nymph Electra


The muses

Nine daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne

Inspired artists of all kinds

Goddesses who presided over the arts and sciences

“He is happy whom the muses love.”

The Muses

Clio, Urania, Thalia, Melpomene, Erato, Calliope, Euterpe, Terpsichore, Polyhymnia


The graces
The Graces

  • Three Goddesses of Grace and Beauty

  • “They give life its bloom.”

  • Aglaia (Splendor)

  • Euphrosyne (Mirth)

  • Thalia (Good Cheer)


The erinnyes the furies
The Erinnyes (The Furies)

  • Roman Name: Furiae or Dirae (The Furies)

  • Three Goddesses of Vengeance

    • Tisiphone

    • Alecto

    • Megaera

  • They punish evildoers.


The fates
The Fates

  • Roman Name: Parcae, Moirae

  • Three sisters

    • Clotho (“The Spinner”)

    • Lachesis (“The disposer of lots”)

    • Atropos (“The cutter”)

  • They weave, measure, and cut the thread of life for humans.


The satyrs
The Satyrs

  • Gods of the woods and mountains

  • “Shepherd gods”

  • Goat men (like Pan)

  • Companions of Dionysus

  • They like to drink, dance, and chase nymphs.


The gorgons
The Gorgons

  • Three snake-haired monsters

  • Medusa is most well-known

  • Their look turns men to stone.


The centaurs
The Centaurs

  • Half man, half horse

  • Savage creatures (except Chiron)

  • Followers of Dionysus


Sources
Sources

  • Graphics in this presentation were taken from the following web sites:

    • http://www.bulfinch.org/fables/search.html

    • http://www.pantheon.org/

    • http://www.messagenet.com/myths/

    • http://mythman.com/

    • http://web.uvic.ca/grs/bowman/myth/index.html

    • http://www.paleothea.com/

    • http://www.entrenet.com/%7Egroedmed/greekm/myth.html

  • This presentation is for educational purposes only; it has not been and should not be sold or used as a vehicle to make money.


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