Module 3 2
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 35

The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 89 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Module 3.2. The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities. To make trainees aware of the importance of good hygienic design and construction of food establishments To relate the general code to the handling and processing of coffee

Download Presentation

The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Module 3 2

Module 3.2

The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Objectives

To make trainees aware of the importance of good hygienic design and construction of food establishments

To relate the general code to the handling and processing of coffee

To create awareness of the roles of different stakeholders in ensuring good practices

Objectives

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Content

Scope and objectives of Section IV of the Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene

Discussion of food hygiene principles relevant to ‘Establishment: design and facilities’ and their application to coffee handling and processing

Discussion of the roles of producers and government in ensuring good practices

Content

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Establishment design and facilities

Establishment: design and facilities

  • Objective of Section IV

    • Depending on the nature of the operations, and the risks associated with them, food establishments should be designed and constructed and equipped to ensure that

      • Contamination is minimised

      • Appropriate maintenance cleaning and disinfection is permitted

  • Codex definition of establishment:

    ‘...Any building or area in which food is handled and the surroundings under the control of the same management.’

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Establishment design and facilities1

Establishment: design and facilities

  • Section IV of Codex GPFH covers:

    • Location of establishments

    • Premises and rooms – design, layout and internal structures

    • Design of equipment and its placement in the establishment

    • Supporting facilities and services

Food hygiene considerations are important at the very first stages of planning a food establishment

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Location of establishments

Location of establishments

  • Establishments should not be located near

    • Polluted areas that pose a serious threat of contaminating food

    • Areas prone to pest infestation

    • Areas prone to flooding, high humidity, etc.

    • Areas from which waste cannot be easily removed

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Design and layout of establishments

Waste

Work rooms

Raw materials

Offices

Generalised lay-out for processsing facility showing product flow

End-products

Warehouse

Design and layout of establishments

  • Internal design and layout of establishment should

    • Permit good hygiene practices

    • Minimise possibility of cross contamination

  • There should be separate channels for

    • Raw material (fresh cherries)

    • Intermediate product (parchment, dry cherries)

    • Waste (pulp, husk)

    • Final product (green beans)

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Layout of facility

Layout of facility

  • To optimize proper functioning of each element of procedure

  • Pulpers should be located near a clean water source

  • Fermentation vats should be located near to pulpers

  • Waste outlet should be directed away from production and processing areas

  • Drying yards and other processing areas should be away from contamination vectors

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Design and construction of drying areas

Design and construction of drying areas

  • Coffee drying yards should have

    • Adequate capacity

    • Smooth drying surfaces

    • Adequate provisions for drainage

    • Full exposure to sunlight

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Design and construction of fermentation vats

Design and construction offermentation vats

  • Fermentation vats should

    • Be located in the pulping house

    • Be adequate in number and capacity

    • Have smooth surfaces

    • Have a maximum depth of 1m

    • Slope gently towards the outlet

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Internal structures and fittings

Open beams and rafters

accumulate dust

Tiled and smooth surfaces

suitable for cleaning

Internal structures and fittings

  • Internal structures should be

    • Made of durable materials

    • Easy to clean and maintain

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Internal structures and fittings1

Internal structures and fittings

  • General considerations

    • Walls and partitions should be easily cleaned

    • Floors should be constructed to allow adequate cleaning and drainage

    • Ceilings and overhead fixtures should be constructed to minimise build up of dirt and condensate

    • Working surfaces in direct contact with food should be durable and easy to clean

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Facilities air quality and ventilation

Facilities - air quality and ventilation

  • Adequate ventilation is required to

    • Minimise build-up of dust and husk particles from handling operations

    • Control temperature and prevent condensation

    • Dissipate odours that might taint the coffee

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Facilities lighting

Facilities - lighting

Adequate natural or artificial lighting should be provided to enable operations to be carried out satisfactorily

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Facilities storage

Facilities - storage

  • Adequate storage facilities should be provided for coffee to permit

    • Adequate maintenance and cleaning

    • Avoid pest access and harbourage

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Facilities storage1

Thulha - Brazil

Storage in a wet room with mouldy walls

Facilities - storage

  • Adequate storage facilities should be provided for coffee to

    • Enable food to be protected from contamination during storage

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Facilities

Facilities

  • Containers for storage of dangerous materials (fuel, chemicals for cleaning, disinfestation, etc.) should be clearly marked and safely stored

  • Water supply - water of acceptable quality standard should be available for processing

  • Systems carrying unsuitable water should be separate

  • Electricity supply – operators should ensure alternative sources of electricity in case of cuts to the central power supply

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Facilities1

One of a series of ‘pools’ for treatment of waste water, at one wet processing facility

Facilities

  • Drainage and waste disposal

  • Cleaning facilities - should allow for adequate cleaning of equipment and facilities

  • Personal hygiene facilities - adequate toilet, handwashing and changing facilities should be provided for staff

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Design of equipment

Sharp corners and crevices may create areas where food material can lodge, making equipment hard to clean

Design of equipment

Equipment should be designed and constructed to ensure that they can be adequately cleaned and maintained

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Design of equipment1

Pulpers used in wet processing

Design of equipment

Where necessary, equipment should be movable or capable of being disassembled to allow for maintenance, cleaning, monitoring, etc.

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Design of equipment2

Design of equipment

Equipment should be designed such that their operation is compatible with conditions necessary to ensure food safety and suitability. Main types of equipment in coffee processing include

  • Dryers

  • Pulpers

  • Hullers

  • Sorting equipment

  • Moisture monitoring equipment

Several variations of basic coffee processing technology exist and different equipment may be used

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Design features of simple sun drying equipment

Design features of simplesun-drying equipment

  • Coffee is spread on a support (wire tray, woven mat, etc.) raised off the ground. Air can circulate freely above and below the support

  • Trays might be movable or fixed

  • When raining, trays are moved under a shelter or covered with plastic or any other material

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Design of simple solar dryers

Design of simple solar dryers

Parabolic solar dryers - the shape of the transparent roof is more or less cylindrical so as to concentrate heat in the drying zone and protect from rain.

Heat cumulates between the coffee and the plastic and the air starts to circulate. This dryer is mounted on a pivot so it can be turned towards the sun.

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Design of simple solar dryers1

Design of simple solar dryers

  • Various solar dryer designs can give faster drying times by

    • Improving airflow and increasing temperature of drying air

  • Participatory approaches are necessary if potential advantages of ‘solar technology’ are to be matched with farmers’ needs

    • Capacity, capital cost, running costs, space requirement, ease of management, etc.

  • For additional information see Section 5 of ‘Introduction to coffee drying [.pdf]’

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Design of equipment mechanical dryers

Design of equipment – mechanical dryers

Mechanical batch dryers are used in coffee drying - primarily for parchment

  • Horizontal dryers

  • Vertical dryers

  • Fixed-bed type dryers

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Design features of pulpers

Design features of pulpers

  • Traditional designs are ‘drum’ and ‘disc’ pulpers

  • Main performance criteria include

    • Capacity; separation efficiency; physical damage to product; durability; ease of maintenance and cleaning

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Design features of pulpers1

Design features of pulpers

  • Important innovations are

    • Low water-use pulpers

    • Pulping systems that accept mixtures of green and ripe cherry and separate the ‘greens’ without crushing

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Design of hullers

Design of hullers

  • Considerations in the selection of a huller include:

    • Capacity

    • Energy requirement

    • Efficiency of husk removal

    • Extent of physical damage to beans

    • Separation of loose husk

    • Durability

    • Ease of maintenance

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Equipment for control and monitoring

Equipment for control and monitoring

Methods for the determination of water in coffee

can be categorised as follows

  • Direct

    • Removal of water and determination of weight loss

  • Indirect

    • Some variable that is dependant on moisture is measured

  • Empirical subjective

    • This includes methods such as biting, shaking and cutting

      NB - These empirical methods of moisture determination in coffee have been shown to be unreliable

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Equipment for control and monitoring1

Equipment for control and monitoring

  • Factors to be considered include

    • Cost

    • ‘Transportability’

    • Robustness

    • Stability

    • Repeatability

    • Sensitivity

    • Accuracy

    • Rapidity

  • The choice of method / equipment depends on

    • How the equipment is to be used

    • Who is to use it

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Equipment for monitoring moisture in the field

One type of low-cost moisture meter investigated under the ‘global coffee project’

‘EDABO’ distillation method of moisture determination developed in Brazil

Equipment for monitoringmoisture in the field

  • Restricting water availability is the main method for control of mould growth and development throughout the coffee chain

  • The ‘global coffee project’ has investigated methods of moisture determination so as to identify methods suitable for use in the field

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Location of equipment

Location of equipment

  • Equipment should be located:

    • To permit adequate maintenance and cleaning

    • In accordance with requirements for proper functioning

    • To facilitate good hygiene practices, including monitoring

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Assessment of establishment

Assessment of establishment

  • A plant assessment can help processors determine if facility design is appropriate

  • A checklist containing all vital areas and items to be considered should be prepared

  • During the inspection notes should be made in relation to all points contained in checklist

  • Evaluation of the design and construction of the establishment and facilities should be based on thorough knowledge of operations and potential hazards

  • Corrective action taken according to evaluation

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Assessment of establishment1

Assessment of establishment

Local coffee industry

Government

  • Establish national standards, codes of practice, etc.

  • Support industry efforts to meet required regulations (information dissemination, new equipment design etc.)

  • Provide oversight to ensure industry compliance

  • Collaborate with government in developing sound and practicable guidelines and standards

  • Entrepreneurs must ensure that the design of their establishment is consistent with principles of food hygiene

  • Entrepreneurs must establish adequate hygiene and GMP programmes to ensure that equipment functions properly and that they do not lead to hazards in the coffee

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


Summary

Summary

  • Inappropriate site selection for coffee processing facilities can lead to quality and safety problems in the product

  • Plant layout should minimize the opportunity for cross contamination

  • Facility design and construction can affect the quality and safety of coffee

  • Equipment must be designed and located so as to facilitate its correct functioning, sanitation and maintenance

  • Government and industry must work together to improve hygiene conditions of coffee processing establishments

Module 3.2 – The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene – Establishment: design and facilities


  • Login