October 15 2007 non finite clauses and control
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October 15, 2007 Non-finite clauses and control. 11-721: Grammars and Lexicons Lori Levin. S. NP VP. I V S-bar. think C S. that John saw Mary. Phrase structure and lexical entries for embedded clauses.

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October 15, 2007 Non-finite clauses and control

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October 15 2007 non finite clauses and control

October 15, 2007 Non-finite clauses and control

11-721: Grammars and Lexicons

Lori Levin


Phrase structure and lexical entries for embedded clauses

S

NP VP

I V S-bar

think C S

that John saw

Mary

Phrase structure and lexical entries for embedded clauses

I think that John saw Mary.

think < cognizer theme >

SUBJ COMP

see < perceiver perceived >

SUBJ OBJ

Matrix clause or main clause

An embedded clause that is an argument of a verb is called a complement. A word like “that”, which marks a clause as a complement clause, is called a complementizer.

Embedded clause


Complement clauses and adjunct clauses

Complement clauses and adjunct clauses

  • Complements

    • I think that it is raining.

    • You told me that it is raining.

  • Adjuncts

    • I read the book while it was raining.

    • I read the book before it rained.


Complementizer

C S

S-bar

S

that linguistics

is fun

NP VP

I V S-bar

think C S

that linguistics

is fun

Complementizer

S

VP

bothers me

Main clauses don’t have complementizers:

*That it is raining.


S bar cp and ip

IP

NP VP

I V CP

think C IP

that linguistics

is fun

S-bar, CP, and IP

  • S is currently called IP (inflectional phrase) and S-bar is currently called CP (complementizer phrase).


Matrix clause and embedded clause

S

NP VP

VS-bar

S

COMPNPVP

It seemsthat they have left.

Matrix clause and embedded clause

Matrix Clause

Embedded Clause


Matrix coding as subject

S

S

NP VP

NP VP

VS-bar

VVP-bar

S

VP

COMPNPVP

I

It seemsthat they have left.

They seemto have left.

Matrix coding as subject


Also known as raising to subject

S

NP VP

VS-bar

S

COMPNPVP

It seemsthat they have left.

Also known as “Raising to Subject”

Lower clause subject is raised to be the subject of the matrix clause.

S

NP VP

VVP-bar

VP

COMP

They seemto have left.


Matrix coding as subject1

Matrix Coding as Subject

  • Subject of embedded clause is coded as subject of matrix clause

    • Occurs before the matrix verb in English

    • Matrix verb agrees with it


Matrix coding as a test for subjecthood

Matrix coding as a test for subjecthood

  • Only the subject of the embedded clause can be removed from the lower clause and coded as the matrix clause subject.

    • It seems that I have seen them.

    • * They seem I to have seen ____.

    • * The knife seems I to have cut the bread with.


Matrix coding as a test for subjecthood1

Matrix coding as a test for subjecthood

  • Start with “It seems that S”

    • It seems that the bear ate a sandwich.

  • Delete “that” and change the embedded verb to an infinitive

    • It seems [the bear to eat a sandwich].

  • Identify the phrase you want to test.

    • It seems [the bear to eat a sandwich].

  • Replace “it” with the phrase you want to test:

    • The bear seems to eat a sandwich.

  • If “seem” doesn’t agree with the phrase, make it agree.

    • It seems that the bears ate a sandwich.

    • It seems the bears to eat a sandwich.

    • The bears seems to eat a sandwich.

    • The bears seem to eat a sandwich.

  • It’s ok to make the lower verb into a perfect (have/had V-ed) or progressive (BE V-ing) to make it sound better.

    • The bear seems to have eaten a sandwich.

    • The bear seems to be eating a sandiwich.


  • What is the subject of these sentences use raising to subject as a test

    What is the subject of these sentences?(Use raising to subject as a test)

    • There is a problem.

    • There are problems.

    • In this village lives a wise man.

    • In this village live many people.


    Two hypotheses

    Two Hypotheses

    • An embedded subject can be coded as the matrix subject.

    • The first element of the embedded clause can be coded as the matrix subject.

    • Can you think of examples to test differentiate between these two hypotheses?


    Using passive to make patients raisable

    Using passive to make patients raisable

    • It seems that Chris ate a sandwich.

    • It seems that a sandwich was eaten by Chris.

    • A sandwich seems to have been eaten by Chris.


    Raising in malagasy

    Raising in Malagasy

    • See handout


    Control by matrix subject

    S

    NP VP

    VVP-bar

    VP

    COMP

    Pat tried to open the window

    Control by Matrix Subject

    • Pat is the agent of try and the agent of open.

    • Pat is also the subject of both verbs.


    Control by matrix subject a k a equi np deletion

    Control by matrix subject: a.k.a. Equi NP Deletion

    • History of Equi NP Deletion:

      • Pat tried Pat to open the window.

      • Pat tried __ to open the window.

      • (Deletion in this case is obligatory.)

    • A meaning preserving transformation deletes the second occurrence of Pat.


    Control as a test for subjecthood

    Control as a test for subjecthood

    • Pat tried ___ to open the window.

    controllee

    controller

    Only the subject of the lower (embedded) clause can be the controllee:

    * Pat tried Kim to see ___


    Seem and try

    The cat seems to be out of the bag.

    There seems to be a problem.

    That seems to be my husband.

    The doctor seemed to examine Sam.

    Sam seemed to be examined by the doctor.

    The cat tried to be out of the bag.

    *There tried to be a problem.

    That tried to be my husband.

    The doctor tried to examine Sam.

    Sam tried to be examined by the doctor.

    Seem and Try


    Seem and try1

    Seem and Try

    seem < theme >

    try < agent theme >


    October 15 2007 non finite clauses and control

    Try

    try < agent theme >

    SUBJ XCOMP

    XCOMP

    • Argument of a verb (not an adjunct)

    • Non-finite

    • Does not have an overt subject

    • Its understood subject is one of the arguments of the main clause.

    • Infinitives and participles in subject and oblique positions are not xcomps.

      • To open the window is hard.

      • I thought about opening the window.

      • Anaphoric or arbitrary control


    October 15 2007 non finite clauses and control

    Seem

    seem < theme > SUBJ

    XCOMP

    Seem has one semantic argument that is split into two syntactic pieces, a SUBJ and an XCOMP.


    October 15 2007 non finite clauses and control

    Seem

    It seems that Sam left.

    Seem < theme > SUBJ

    COMP


    Seem and try accounting for the differences

    Seem and Try: accounting for the differences

    • Verbs impose selectional restrictions on their semantic arguments.

      • Colorless green ideas sleep furiously.

      • The house woke up.

    • The subject of try must be interpretable as an agent.

      • It cannot be a dummy element.

      • It cannot be an idiom chunk.

    • Changing the subject of try changes its agent and gives it a different meaning.


    Thematic paraphrase

    Thematic Paraphrase

    • The same noun phrases fill the same semantic (thematic) roles for the same verbs.

    • It seems that Sam ate a sandwich.

    • Sam seems to have eaten a sandwich.

    • A sandwich seems to have been eaten by Sam.


    Controllers and controllees

    Controllers and Controllees

    • Van Valin uses the terms controller and controllee only with try-type verbs (equi verbs).

    • We will use the terms controller and controllee with seem-type verbs (raising verbs) as well.


    Are raising and control long distance dependencies

    S

    NP VP

    V VP-bar

    C VP

    V VP-bar

    C VP

    V VP-bar

    C VP

    Are raising and control long distance dependencies?

    • Sam seemed to appear to try to eat a sandwich.

    Is “Sam” a filler, and is there a gap before “eat”?

    Sam seemed to appear to try to ____eat a sandwich


    Control and raising are not long distance dependencies

    Control and raising are not long distance dependencies

    • The long distance with raising and control is a sequence of local operations.

      • “Sam” is raised locally from “eat” to “try”, from “try” to “appear”, and from “appear” to “seemed”. “Sam” is understood as the subject of each verb.

    • With a true filler and gap, there are no other gaps intervening between the filler and gap.

      • Who did you think he said she told him she saw ___.


    Control and raising are not long distance dependencies1

    Control and raising are not long distance dependencies

    • A true gap can go with any verb.

      • Who did you see __?

      • What did you read__?

      • What did you sing __to her?

    • A true gap can be subj, obj, obl, etc.

      • Who __ saw you?

      • Who did you talk to __?

    • “Understood” subjects only occur in the subject position of infinitive clauses that are complements of certain verbs like “seem” and “try.”


    Matrix coding as object a k a raising to object or exceptional case marking

    Matrix Coding as Object: a.k.a. Raising-to-Object or Exceptional Case Marking

    • I believe that they have left.

    • I believe them to have left.


    October 15 2007 non finite clauses and control

    S

    NP VP

    V NPVP-bar

    I VP

    I believethem to have left

    S

    Matrix Clause

    NP VP

    V S-bar

    COMP S

    Embedded Clause

    NP VP

    I believethat they have left


    October 15 2007 non finite clauses and control

    S

    NP VP

    V NPVP-bar

    I VP

    I believethem to have left

    Raising-to-Object: We will use this one in this class.

    S

    NP VP

    Exceptional Case Marking: we will not use this one.

    S

    V NP VP-bar

    I VP

    I believe them to have left


    Evidence that them is direct object of the matrix clause

    Evidence that them is direct object of the matrix clause

    • It is in the accusative case.

    • It can be the subject of the passive of the matrix verb.

      • They are believed to have left.

    • Tests for constituency:

      • Class participation

        • Coordination

        • Movement

        • Pronoun substitution


    Raising to object as a test for subjecthood

    Raising to object as a test for subjecthood.

    • Only the subject of the lower (embedded) clause can be raised up to be the object of the matrix clause.

      • Leslie believes that the police have arrested Chris.

      • Leslie believes the police to have arrested Chris.

      • *Leslie believes Chris the police to have arrested.


    Test with raising to object

    Test with raising to object

    • There are some problems.

    • In the village live many people.


    Control by matrix object

    S

    NP VP

    V NPVP-bar

    I VP

    I persuadedPat to leave

    Control by Matrix Object


    Control by matrix object1

    Control by Matrix Object

    • Pat is the direct object of persuade and the subject of leave.

      • The matrix object (controller) and embedded subject (controllee) are the same.

    • Only the embedded subject can be the controllee.

      • *Pat persuaded Sam the doctor to examine.


    Believe and persuade

    I believe the cat to be out of the bag.

    I believe there to be a problem.

    I believe that to be my husband.

    I believe Pat to have opened the window.

    I believe the window to have been opened by Pat.

    I persuaded the cat to be out of the bag.

    *I persuaded there to be a problem.

    I persuaded that to be my husband.

    I persuaded Pat to have opened the window.

    ? I persuaded the window to have been opened by Pat.

    Believe and Persuade


    Using passive to make patients controllable

    Using passive to make patients controllable

    • I believe that Sam opened the window.

    • I believe the window to have been opened by Sam.

    • I believe the window to have been opened by Sam.

    • I perusaded the doctor to examine Sam.

    • I persuaded Sam to be examined by the doctor.


    Control in malagasy

    Control in Malagasy

    • See handout.


    Control of adjunct clauses

    Control of Adjunct Clauses

    • Having just arrived in town,Sam called his mother.

    • Having just hurt herself, Sam called his mother.

    • What can be the controller?

      • Matrix subject?

      • Matrix object?

    • What can be the controllee?

      • Embedded subject?

      • Embedded object?


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