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MARINE LUBRICANTS. MARINE BUSINESS. INDIAN MARITIME HISTORY. Indian Maritime Administration was born in 1929 in the form of three Mercantile Departments (MMDs) – Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.

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Marine lubricants

MARINE LUBRICANTS

MARINE BUSINESS


Indian maritime history
INDIAN MARITIME HISTORY

  • Indian Maritime Administration was born in 1929 in the form of three Mercantile Departments (MMDs) – Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.

  • They were set up fundamentally to implement the first international convention on ‘Safety of Life at Sea’ (SOLAS) Convention, 1974 and Loadline Convention.


Indian maritime history1
INDIAN MARITIME HISTORY

  • The main objectives of MMDs are to administer the various Merchant Shipping Laws and rules relating to safety of ships and life at sea, registration of ships, tonnage measurement, crew accommodation, surveys for load line, safety construction, prevention of pollution, inquiries into shipping casualties and wrecks, etc.


Indian maritime history2
INDIAN MARITIME HISTORY

  • Mercantile Marine Department, is headed by the Principal Officer, and supported by Nautical Surveyors, Engineer Ship Surveyors, Radio Inspector, Seamen Welfare Officer and supporting staff.


Indian maritime history3
INDIAN MARITIME HISTORY

  • In September 1949 the Directorate General of Shipping was established at Mumbai.

  • It is an attached office of the Ministry of Shipping, Govt. of India and deals with all executive matters, relating to merchant shipping.

  • Implementation of shipping policy and legislation, development of coastal shipping and various other aspects related to the Indian shipping industry comes under its purview.








Generic terms
Generic Terms thrust area in the years to come.


  • BUNKERS - fuel consumed by the engines of a ship; Compartments or tanks in a ship for fuel storage.

  • BARGE - flat-bottomed boat designed to carry cargo on inland waterways, usually without engines or crew accommodations. Barges can be lashed together and either pushed or pulled by tugs, carrying cargo of 60,000 tons or more.






  • BEAM - the width of a ship. Also called breadth. and aft line; Behind. If a vessel moves backwards it is said to move astern; Opposite to ahead.

  • BOW - the front of a vessel.

  • BRIDGE - used loosely to refer to the navigating section of the vessel where the wheel house and chart room are located; Erected structure amidships or aft or very rarely fore over the main deck of a ship to accommodate the wheelhouse.


  • DANGEROUS CARGO - all substances of an inflammable nature which are liable to spontaneous combustion either in themselves or when stowed adjacent to other substances and, when mixed with air, are liable to generate explosive gases or produce suffocation or poisoning or tainting of foodstuffs.




  • CLASSIFICATION SOCIETY - worldwide experienced and reputable societies which undertake to arrange inspections and advise on the hull and machinery of a ship. An autonomous organization that supervises vessels during their construction and afterward, in respect to their seaworthiness, and the placing of vessels in grades or "classes" according to the society's rules for each particular type. It is not compulsory by law that a ship owner have his vessel built according to the rules of any classification society; But in practice, the difficulty in securing satisfactory insurance rates for an un-classed vessel makes it a commercial obligation.


  • The societies which undertake to arrange inspections and advise on the hull and machinery of a ship. An autonomous organization that supervises vessels during their construction and afterward, in respect to their seaworthiness, and the placing of vessels in grades or "classes" according to the society's rules for each particular type. It is not compulsory by law that a ship owner have his vessel built according to the rules of any classification society; But in practice, the difficulty in securing satisfactory insurance rates for an un-classed vessel makes it a commercial obligation.Indian Register of Shipping (IRS) is an internationally recognized independent ship classification society, founded in India in 1975.


  • Within a short span of 16 years, IRS (Indian Register of Shipping) has become an associate member of the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS), the major international body of classification societies.

  • Admission in IACS is granted only to the best and signifies high standards, excellent reputation and professional competence.


  • IRS (Indian Register of Shipping) provides professionally competent, completely independent and highly efficient third party technical inspection and certification services for all types of ships and structures.

  • These services have also been expanded to cover a range of offshore and industrial projects.


Marpol mar ine pol lution
MARPOL competent, completely independent and highly efficient third party technical inspection and certification services for all types of ships and structures. MARine POLlution





  • During the next few years International Maritime Organization (IMO) introduced the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78).

  • It covers not only accidental and operational oil pollution but also pollution by chemicals, goods in packaged form, sewage, garbage and air pollution.


Marpol annex vi prevention of air pollution from ships entry into force 19 may 2005
MARPOL Annex VI Organization (IMO) introduced the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78).Prevention of  Air Pollution from Ships (entry into force 19 May 2005)


Emissions from shipping
Emissions From Shipping Organization (IMO) introduced the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78).

  • Emissions from shipping can be an issue for local authorities with major ports.

  • Also, as emissions from other sources decline, global emissions from shipping are becoming more and more significant, with this source expected to account for 60% of total SO2 emissions in the EU by 2010.


  • However, bunker fuel emissions from international shipping had so far been excluded from any commitment in the protocol.

  • After looking at the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping, the best solution was for International Maritime Organization (IMO) to agree on a global shipping emissions target that would be comparable to targets of industrialised countries.


  • In 1997, the 3 had so far been excluded from any commitment in the protocol.rd conference of parties to the UN framework convention on climate change adopted the Kyoto Protocol as a consequence of increasing evidence of a manmade global warming of the atmosphere.

  • Binding greenhouse gas emission reduction targets for industrialised countries were agreed upon.


  • Shipping is a global industry and efforts to reduce emissions are most effective when agreed and implemented at an international level.

  • Annex VI to MARPOL 73/78 is a International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulation which aims to prevent and reduce air pollution from ships.



  • The agreement set a global sulphur cap of 4.5% by mass for all heavy marine bunker fuels, and a 1.5% cap by mass for fuels burnt in special SOx Emission Control Areas (SECA).

  • Alternatively, ships must fit an exhaust gas cleaning system or use any other technological method to limit SOx emissions in these areas.


  • The agreement also set limits on NO all heavy marine bunker fuels, and a 1.5% cap by mass for fuels burnt in special SOx emissions from diesel engines.

  • As NOx emissions from shipping are primarily from engines, the MARPOL Annex provides a mandatory technical specification for ship engines manufactured since 1st January 2000.


  • The global limit for the sulphur content of marine bunkers set by the Regulations at 4.5% m/m is not expected to have much operational impact as the incidence of marine fuels exceeding this level is not high.

  • The main impact will be felt when the Baltic and North Sea/English Channel SOx Emission Control Areas (SECAs) become operational on May 19, 2006 and in November 2007, respectively, further limiting sulphur content of fuels to 1.5% m/m.


  • IMO has currently agreed on the designation of two SECA’s as per below:

  • The Baltic Sea Area which will enter into force on the 19th May 2006.

  • The North Sea Area and the English Channel has also been agreed, but due to the amendment process in IMO, it will not enter into force as a SECA until 19th November 2007.





  • However, it also indicates that only 4% of the fuel oils supplied today have a sulphur content of 1.5% or less.

  • It has been estimated that the low sulphur fuel oil demand in the SECA’s will be in the region of 14-20 million tons per year, of which approximately 0.7 million tons per year is available in north west Europe today.






Bunkering operations
BUNKERING OPERATIONS EU are regulated by the Sulphur content of liquid fuels directive 99/32/EC.



Safety requirements
Safety requirements operational requirements:

  • Safety is the corner-stone of any good operation.

  • In the absence of safe working procedures and practices, no operation or venture will succeed.


Safety requirements1
Safety requirements operational requirements:

Important safety requirements:

  • Personal protective equipment in use.

  • Dangers of toxic gases addressed.

  • Permit to work system followed.

  • Life saving appliances kept in readiness.

  • Pollution prevention gear kept in readiness.

  • Fire-fighting equipment kept in readiness.


Operational requirements
Operational requirements operational requirements:

Important operational requirements are:

  • Pre-transfer checks carried out.

  • Sampling procedures understood and adhered.

  • Equipment onboard kept in optimum condition.

  • Personnel onboard are well rested.

  • Material Safety Data Sheets circulated.


Documentation requirement
Documentation requirement operational requirements:

A complete bunkering operation should

include the following documentation:

  • Bunker requisition form

  • Statement of fact

  • Non-cargo tank declaration / inspection form

  • Tank measurement / calculation form

  • Bunker delivery note


Documentation requirement1
Documentation requirement operational requirements:

A complete bunkering operation should

include the following documentation:

  • Meter delivery report

  • Sample witnessing and receipt

  • Note of protest from cargo officer (if applicable)


TANKER MANAGEMENT operational requirements:


CLASSIFICATION OF VESSELS operational requirements:


  • CRUDE OIL. operational requirements:

  • PRODUCT –BLACK OIL –WHITE OIL.

  • COMBINATION CARRIER (OBO).

  • VEGETABLE CARRIER.

  • CHEMICAL TANKER.

  • LPG CARRIER.

TYPES OF TANKERS



Bulk carrier
Bulk Carrier amounts of cargoes such as sugar, grain, wine, ore, chemicals, etc.



Dry cargo ship
Dry Cargo Ship excluding liquid in bulk.



Container ship
Container Ship can easily stack containers near and on top of each other as well as on deck.


  • TANKER - A tanker is a bulk carrier designed to transport liquid cargo, most often petroleum products. Oil tankers vary in size from small coastal vessels of 1,500 tons deadweight, through medium-sized ship of 60,000 tons, to the giant VLCCs (very large crude carriers).

  • VLCC - very large crude carriers: tankers between 200,000 and 300,000 dwt.

  • ULCC - ultra large crude carriers. Tankers larger than 300,000 dwt.


Oil tankers
Oil Tankers liquid cargo, most often petroleum products. Oil tankers vary in size from small coastal vessels of 1,500 tons deadweight, through medium-sized ship of 60,000 tons, to the giant VLCCs (very large crude carriers).


JAHRE VIKING liquid cargo, most often petroleum products. Oil tankers vary in size from small coastal vessels of 1,500 tons deadweight, through medium-sized ship of 60,000 tons, to the giant VLCCs (very large crude carriers).Length 458.45 Meters Beam 68.86 Meters Draft 24.61 Meters Displacement GT (ITC 69): 260,851 / NT (ITC 69): 214,793 / DWT: 564,763 / Cubic: 658,362



Passenger ships
Passenger Ships carry over twelve passengers.



Reefer
Reefer requiring refrigeration, such as meat and fruit. A reefer ship has insulated holds into which cold air is passed at the temperature appropriate to the goods being carried.


  • VEHICLE CARRIER - Ship with facilities for vehicles to drive on and off (roll-on roll-off); a system of loading and discharging a ship whereby the cargo is driven on and off on ramps. Equipped with large openings at bow and stern and sometimes also in the side, the ship permits rapid loading and discharge with hydraulically operated ramps providing easy access.


Vehicle carrier
Vehicle Carrier on and off (roll-on roll-off); a system of loading and discharging a ship whereby the cargo is driven on and off on ramps. Equipped with large openings at bow and stern and sometimes also in the side, the ship permits rapid loading and discharge with hydraulically operated ramps providing easy access.


  • GAS CARRIER - Liquefied natural gas carrier, perhaps the most sophisticated of all commercial ships. The cargo tanks are made of a special aluminum alloy and are heavily insulated to carry natural gas in its liquid state at a temperature of -285°F. The LNG ship costs about twice as much as an oil tanker of the same size.


Gas carrier
Gas Carrier most sophisticated of all commercial ships. The cargo tanks are made of a special aluminum alloy and are heavily insulated to carry natural gas in its liquid state at a temperature of -285°F. The LNG ship costs about twice as much as an oil tanker of the same size.



Specialist ship dredger
Specialist Ship - Dredger time of construction.


Specialist ship heavy lift
Specialist Ship - Heavy Lift time of construction.


SPECIALIST SHIP – time of construction.

INS VIRAT – AIRCRAFT CARRIER


CHARTERING OF time of construction.TANKERS


What is tanker chartering
WHAT IS TANKER CHARTERING? time of construction.

  • A PROCESS INVOLVES NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN SHIP OWNERS & A CHARTERER (OIL CO.) FOR HIRING A SHIP (TIME/VOYAGE OR COA BASIS) FOR CARRIAGE OF CRUDE OIL/POL AT MOST COMPETITIVE RATES, TERMS & CONDITIONS.

  • FREIGHT RATES ARE INFLUENCED BY VARIOUS INTERNATIONAL SUPPLY DEMAND FORCES & OPPORTUNITY COSTS.

  • INTERNATIONAL FREIGHT MKT. HAS NEITHER FLOOR LEVEL NOR ANY CEILING.

  • DIRECT NEGOTIATIONS OR THRU BROKERS MOSTLY ON EMAIL/PHONE/FAX WITH PROPER DOCUMENTATION/AUDIT TRAIL/RECORDING.


What is tanker chartering1
WHAT IS TANKER CHARTERING? time of construction.

  • A BRIEF NOTE GIVING FIXTURE RECAP ON MAIN TERMS THROUGH EMAIL/FAX IS EXCHANGED BETWEEN PARTIES AS EVIDENCE OF CONTRACT

  • AS PER INTERNATIONAL INDUSTRY PRACTICE, CHARTERING IS NOT A TWO BID PROCESS (I.E.TECH.& PRICE) BUT IS A COMPOSITE BID SYSTEM INVOLVING TECHNO-COMMERCIAL EVALUATION OF MULTIPLE PARAMETERS LIKE SPEED/DEAD FRT./YEAR BUILT ETC. HAVING ITS VARYING IMPACT ON COST

  • CREDENTIALS OF SHIP OWNERS IS CHECKED THROUGH IMB/ BIMCO/BROKERS BEFORE NEGOTIATION

  • CONSIDERABLE FINANCIAL EXPOSURE FOR BOTH – CHARTERER & SHIP OWNERS.


Type of charter

VOYAGE CHARTER time of construction.

FOR ONE VOYAGE

1 OR 2 LOAD PORT/ DISPORTS

FREIGHT, DEMURRAGE DEAD FREIGHT

BUNKER PORT CHARGES ON SHIP OWNERS A/C.

CARGO RELATED CHARGES ON CHARTERERS A/C.

TIME CHARTER

FOR TIME/PERIOD.

VESSEL AT CHARTERERS DISPOSAL.

MONTHLY CHARTER HIRE IN ADVANCE.

BUNKER & PORT CHARGES ON CHARTERERS ACCOUNT

CARGO RELATED CHARGES ON CHARTERERS A/C.

TYPE OF CHARTER


THANK YOU time of construction.


TANKER TERMINOLOGY time of construction.

  • Lay day/Lay time.

  • Demurrage / Despatch.

  • Lighterage operation:Transhipment.

    :Mv/Dv - Double Banking.

    :Fenders.

  • Charter Party – Time/Voyage.

  • Bill Of Lading.

  • DW – Deadweight :Plimsoll Mark.

    :Displacement


TANKER TERMINOLOGY time of construction.

  • ETA/ETB/ETC/ETD/NOR.

  • LOA/Beam/Fore/Aft.

  • GRT/NRT.

  • Draft-Port/Ship.

  • FOB/C&F/CIF.

  • Ballasting/Deballasting/SBT/CBT/COW.

  • Stripping/Trimming/List.

  • OBQ-On Board Quantity (ROB).On carried.


TANKER time of construction.COST

  • CHARTER HIRE

  • FREIGHT-DEADFREIGHT

  • BUNKER COST- FO/LDO/HFHSD.

  • STEAMING/PUMPING.

  • PORT CHARGES:

    SHIP RELATED : PILOTAGE

    : TUG./MOORING

    : PIER/PORT DUES


TANKER time of construction.COST

: LIGHT DUES.

: OPC.

: HULL INSURANCE.

CARGO RELATED : WHARFAGE.

: OCTROI.

: CUSTOM/EXCISE DUTY.

: INSURANCE PREMIUM.


TANKER time of construction.COST

  • DRY DOCKING CHARGES.

  • DEMURRAGE/DETENTION/DEV.

  • DUTY ON SHIPS’ STORES.

  • PORT DISBURSEMENT.

  • ADVANCE TO MASTER.


OWNER time of construction.

(Revenue)

CHARTERER

(Transport)

THE CHARTER PARTY

(A contract)

VOYAGE

BAREBOAT

TIME

Consecutive

voyage

Trip Time Charter

Contract of

Affreightment


Chartering decisions time vs voyage
CHARTERING DECISIONS : TIME Vs. VOYAGE time of construction.

  • In a UPGOING & STRONG tanker market a ship owner would like to give a tanker on a voyage charter basis to earn higher freight rates from voyage to voyage basis.

  • In case the market indicates falling trend of freight rates the ship owners would like to give the ship on long time charter basis to protect himself from the losses.

  • If the Charterer is sure about the long term employment and exercises utmost diligence in the usage of the vessel he should opt for a time charter especially in up going frt. market.

  • Time charter rates comparison with voyage charter rates as on for following size of vessels :


Tanker time charter
TANKER TIME CHARTER time of construction.

Types of Time Charter :

  • Trip Time Charter - Short period, flexibility to charterers, commonly practiced veg.oil, chemicals,dry bulk cargo.

  • Time Charter - Voyage expenses, pumping at loadport and disport on charterers account.


Tanker time charter1
TANKER TIME CHARTER time of construction.

  • Duty to maintain- Due diligence by owners to maintain and restore the vsl to required condition, charterers right to putoff the vsl.

  • Limits of trading period- Charterer’s option.

  • Final voyage-Redelivery, where & when.

  • Trading limits-WIWL


Tanker time charter2
TANKER TIME CHARTER time of construction.

  • Lay days/Canceling-Charterer’s option.

  • Owners to provide-All provisions, wages, Ins.etc

  • Charterers to provide-Generally for dry cargo.

  • Rate & Payment of Hire-Delay in payment, tanker withdrawal clauses and etc.

  • Instructions and Logs-Performance monitoring.

  • Directions and conduct of vessel’s personnel


Tanker time charter3
TANKER TIME CHARTER time of construction.

  • Bunkers-Supply of quality bunkers.

  • Supernumeraries-Representative on Board.

  • Sub-letting-Liabilities from mal-performance.

  • Loss of vessel-Total loss or Constructive loss.

  • Off-Hire – Shelf time form specifies the time.

  • Periodical dry docking-Area of dry docking.


Tanker time charter4
TANKER TIME CHARTER time of construction.

  • Performance clause-Speed, bunker consumption and port stay.

  • Salvage-Apportionment of expense

  • Lien – Each party’s rights of lien.

  • Exception – Unplanned repairs & breakdown.

  • Injurious cargoes – Explosives.


Tanker time charter5
TANKER TIME CHARTER time of construction.

  • Laying up – Charterers and Owners to consult.

  • Requisition by Govt.

  • Protective clauses – Both to blame collision clause, New Jason clause, Clause Paramount.

  • TOVALOP & ITOPF – P&I Club Insurance.

  • Law and Litigation – English law.


VOIYAGE CHARTER time of construction.

CRUDE :

VOYAGE – RASTANURA TO VIZAG

SMAX (140000 MT) $ 28.23 / MT

LS FREIGHT $ 3.95 MILLION RS. 15.80 CRORES AT WS 335

LPG :

VOYAGE – RASTANURA TO VIZAG

VLGC (39000 MT) $ 50.00 / MT

LS FREIGHT $ 1.95 MILLION RS. 7.80 CRORES


Omc and indian shipping industry
OMC AND INDIAN SHIPPING INDUSTRY time of construction.

  • Almost 70% of imported crude for OMC is carried by Indian Fleet

  • Entire indigenous crude is transported by Indian fleet for OMC

  • Out of total 18 product tankers on Time Charter to Oil Industry, OMC handles 11 of them

  • OMC is about to start direct chartering of vessels shortly


Chartering procedure contd
CHARTERING PROCEDURE time of construction. Contd…

  • Floating of enquiry

  • Receipt of offers

  • Evaluation of offers

  • Negotiations / counters

  • Fixtures on “Subjects”

  • Charter Party


We should know
WE SHOULD KNOW …… time of construction.

Tanker Market structure

Worldscale

A F R A

Factors which have influenced freight market levels


Tanker market structure
TANKER MARKET STRUCTURE time of construction.

  • 3 Players

    • Owners

    • Charterers

    • Brokers


The ship broker
THE SHIP BROKER time of construction.

Collects and distributes information about the markets

Acts as an intermediary for a negotiation

Provides the skill and expertise to deal with the post fixture administration & operations

Ethical standards ???


The tanker market
THE TANKER MARKET time of construction.

Works very quickly

Address commission

Brokerage

Negotiations on phone or Messenger

Recap via e-mail or Fax

Asbatankvoy is widely used standard Charter party with additional clauses


Factors influencing freight markets
FACTORS INFLUENCING FREIGHT MARKETS time of construction.

Political events

Oil demand

New building activity

Tanker scrapping

External pressures


Statutory requirements
STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS time of construction.


  • In 1948 under the auspices of United Nations, an international conference in Geneva adopted a convention formally establishing International Maritime Organization, or IMO.

  • The purposes of the Organization is to encourage and facilitate the general adoption of the highest practicable standards in matters concerning maritime safety, efficiency of navigation and prevention and control of marine pollution from ships.



Statutory requirements maritime safety
Statutory Requirements – Maritime Safety classified into the following :

  • SOLAS (Safety Of Life At Sea)

  • LOADLINE

  • COLREG (Regulation for Preventing Collision at Sea)

  • INMARSAT (International Maritime Satellite Organization)

  • STCW (Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers)

  • SAR (Search And Rescue)


Statutory requirements marine pollution
Statutory Requirements – Marine Pollution classified into the following :

  • MARPOL (Prevention of Pollution from Ships)

  • OPRC (Oil pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation)

  • AFS (Anti-fouling Systems on ships)

  • Control and management of ships ballast water sediments


Statutory requirements liability and compensation
Statutory Requirements – Liability and Compensation classified into the following :

  • CLC (Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage)

  • FUND (International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage)

  • HNS (Hazardous and Noxious Substances)

  • Bunker Oil Pollution Damage


Statutory requirements other subjects
Statutory Requirements – Other Subjects classified into the following :

  • FAL (Facilitation of International Maritime Traffic)

  • TONNAGE (Tonnage Measurement of Ships)

  • SUA (Suppression of Unlawful Acts)

  • SALVAGE


Solas s afety o f l ife a t s ea
SOLAS classified into the following :Safety Of Life At Sea





  • Control provisions also allow Contracting Governments to inspect ships of other Contracting States if there are clear grounds for believing that the ship and its equipment do not substantially comply with the requirements of the Convention - this procedure is known as Port State Control.


A few areas covered under solas are
A few areas covered under SOLAS are: inspect ships of other Contracting States if there are clear grounds for believing that the ship and its equipment do not substantially comply with the requirements of the Convention - this procedure is known as Port State Control.

  • Construction

  • Fire protection

  • Life saving appliances

  • Radio communication

  • Safety of navigation

  • Carriage of cargoes

  • Management of safe operation of ships

  • Enhance maritime safety and security


Loadline
LOADLINE inspect ships of other Contracting States if there are clear grounds for believing that the ship and its equipment do not substantially comply with the requirements of the Convention - this procedure is known as Port State Control.


  • LOAD LINE - The line on a vessel indicating the maximum depth to which that vessel can sink when loaded with cargo. Also known as marks.

  • INTERNATIONAL LOAD LINE CERTIFICATE - A certificate which gives details of a ship's freeboards and states that the ship has been surveyed and the appropriate load lines marked on her sides. A classification society or the Coast Guard issues this certificate.




  • It has long been recognized that limitations on the draught to which a ship may be loaded make a significant contribution to her safety.

  • The first official loading regulations are thought to date back to maritime legislation originating with the island kingdom of Crete in 2,500 BC when vessels were required to pass loading and maintenance inspections.



  • The minimum freeboard was designed to provide a standard of "reserve buoyancy" (the volume of the watertight hull above the load waterline), while the protection of openings in the hull and superstructures, such as hatches, ventilators, air pipes, scuppers, overhead discharges and the access openings in the end bulkhead of superstructures were an important consideration in the assignment of freeboard.



Torrey canyon disaster
TORREY CANYON DISASTER side of the ship, together with the deck line.


Torrey canyon disaster1
TORREY CANYON DISASTER side of the ship, together with the deck line.



Tasman spirit
TASMAN SPIRIT spectacular, operational pollution is still the bigger threat.


ONGC URAN spectacular, operational pollution is still the bigger threat.

O P P

N P P

J 1

J 2

J 3

J 4

HPFR

ONGC TROMB.

ONGC JDM

36 ”

30 ”

J D M

P P M

42 ”

30 ”

30 ”

BPCR

BPCM

JDBPT

S/WAD

J.DWEEP PIPELINE SKETCH


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