Chapter 14. Ladders. Introduction. Ladders provide access to elevated or below-grade locations Truss-type beams have replaced solid wood beams High-strength aluminum replaced wood New design technology continued to meet ladder needs Ladders can be used for many purposes. Ladder Terminology.
Figure 14-1 (A) Straight ladder terminology. (B) Steel spurs on a ladder of truss construction. (C) Swivel shoes with pads and spikes.
Figure 14-2 Straight wall ladders.
Figure 14-4 Extension ladder terminology.
Figure 14-6 A hook ladder, with retracted hooks, being used as a straight ladder.
Figure 14-7 Folding ladder (also called a suitcase or attic ladder). (A) Folded. (B) Opened.
Figure 14-8 Combination A-frame ladder. (A) Used as a short extension ladder. (B) Being converted from an extension ladder to an A-frame stepladder.
Figure 14-8 (cont’d.) Combination A-frame ladder. (C) In the A-frame stepladder mode.
Table 14-1 Ground Ladder Tips
Table 14-2 General Inspection Guidelines
Table 14-3 Extension Ladder Inspection Guidelines
Figure 14-9 (A) Ladder placed with the tip below the windowsill. (B) Ladder placed with the tip at the top of the windowsill to either side.
Figure 14-11 Multiple ladder rescue technique.
Figure 14-12 Ladder with salvage cover, plastic sheet, or tarpaulin used as a chute to divert and discharge water.
Figure 14-13 Ladders can be used to climb over a high fence.
Figure 14-14 A handline can be used off a ground ladder for difficult-to-reach areas. Note the use of a ladder belt.
Figure 14-15 Ladders can be turned into an emergency water pool or collection area.
Figure 14-16 A ladder can be used as a barrier.
Figure 14-17 Ladder used as a shoring tool. A ladder secured to substantial objects by ropes can assist in stabilizing a structural defect as an emergency measure.
Figure 14-18 A-frame hoist.
Figure 14-19 A ladder can be used to support a fan in a doorway.
Figure 14-20 A ladder can make an electrical connection to ground.
Figure 14-21 “Climbing path” pass-through area.
Figure 14-22 Uneven ground effect is magnified as the ladder increases in height.
Figure 14-23 Ladders must be positioned properly and not overloaded.
Figure 14-25 Leg lock.
Figure 14-27 (A) It is important to leave room to remove portable ground ladders. (B) Parking apparatus can impede ladder access: parking on an angle can be a simple solution.
Figure 14-29 The working length is the distance from the ground to the point where the ladder contacts the building. The ladder is placed at a point approximately one-quarter of the working length from the building.
Figure 14-30 (A) Beam raise. (B) Rung raise.
Figure 14-38 Aerial ladder raising mechanisms as seen from under a raised bed ladder.
Figure 14-39 Ladder positioning terminology.
Figure 14-41 Tower ladder.
Figure 14-42 A snorkel basket can reach places not possible with other types of apparatus.