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LINEZOLID. The discovery and clinical development of effective antibiotics is most remarkable achievement over the past 60 years. Since the introduction of the sulphonamides in 1936, researchers have developed a range of antibiotic classes.

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slide4

The discovery and clinical development of effective antibiotics is most remarkable achievement over the past 60 years.

  • .
  • Since the introduction of the sulphonamides in 1936, researchers have developed a range of antibiotic classes.
slide5

Until recently, however all new antibiotics introduced over the past 35 years have been structural modifications of existing antibiotic classes.

slide6

The oxazolidinones represent the first truly new class of antibacterial agents.

  • Approved in 2000 by the US FDA.
  • .
  • Linezolid has a unique mechanism of antibacterial action.
slide9

Linezolid is the first of a new class of anti microbial agents, the Oxazolidinones, whose mechanism of action differs from that of existing agents.

slide10

Cross resistance to other antimicrobials is therefore less likely and has not been shown till date.

  • .
  • It is approved US FDA in adults (April 2000) and children (December 2002) for the treatment of Gram Positive bacteria.
slide12

It disrupts bacterial growth by inhibiting

  • the initiation process in protein synthesis.
  • It binds to a site on the bacterial 23s
  • ribosomal RNA of the 50s subunit,
  • preventing the formation of functional 70s
  • initiation complex which is an essential
  • component of the bacterial translation
  • process.
slide14

This site of inhibition process occurs

  • earlier in the initiation process than
  • other protein synthesis inhibitors
  • that interfere with the elongation
  • process.
slide16

Half Life:

  • Preterm neonate < 1 week: 5.6 hrs.
  • Term neonate < 1 week: 3 hrs.
  • Term neonate > 1 week: 1.5 hrs.
  • Infants: 1.8 hrs
  • Children: 3 + 1.1 hrs
  • Adolescent: 4.1 hrs
  • .
slide17

Maximum Plasma concentration is reached

  • within 1 to 2 hrs.
  • .
  • Distributes readily to well perfused area
slide18

Metabolism: It is primarily metabolized by oxidation of the morphine ring which results in two inactive ring-opened carboxylic acid metabolites

  • .
  • A) aminoethoxyacetic acid
  • (B) hydroxyethyl glycine
slide19

Excretion: Non renal clearance accounts for about 65% of total clearance.

  • .
  • Approximately 30% of the dose appears in urine as Linezolid, 40% as metabolite B and 10% as metabolite A
slide20

Aerobic and facultative Gram positive

  • microorganisms
  • Enterococcus faecium (vancomycin
  • resistant strains only)
  • Staphylococcus aureus ( including
  • methicillin resistantstrain)
  • Streptococcus agalactiae
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • ( penicillin susceptible strains only)
  • Strptococcus pyrogenes
  • .
slide21

Aerobic and facultative Gram positive microorganisms

Enterococcus faecalis (including vancomycin-resistan strains)

Enterococcus faecalis (vancomycin-susceptible strains)

Staphylococcus epidermidis (including methicillin- resistant strains)

Staphylococcus haemolyticus.

Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin-resistant strains)

Viridans group streptococci

  • .
  • Aerobic and facultative Gram-negative microorganisms

Pasteurella multocida

slide22

Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium

  • infections, including cases with concurrent bacteremia
  • Nosocomial pneumonia caused by staphylococcus aureus
  • (methicillin susceptible and resistant strains), or
  • streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin susceptible strains).
  • .
  • Combination therapy may be clinically indicated if the
  • documented or presumptive pathogens include
  • Gram- negative organisms.
slide23

Complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible and resistant strains), streptococcus pyogenes, or streptococcus agalactiae

  • .
  • Uncomplicated skin and skin structure
  • infections caused by staphylococcus aureus
  • (methicillin-susceptible only) or streptococcus
  • pyogenes
slide24

Community-acquired pneumonia caused

  • by Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin-susceptible strains only),including cases with concurrent bacteremia, or staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible strains).
  • .
slide27

CBC, Hb & Platelet count: particularly in patients who are at increased risk for bleeding, patients with pre-existing thrombocytopenia or Myelosuppression or concomitant medications that decrease platelet count or function or produce bone marrow suppression and in patient requiring more than 2 weeks therapy.

  • .
  • Number and type of stools /day for diarrhea
slide29

Well tolerated by most patients.

  • Same in children & adults
  • The most common adverse effects are:
  • Myelosuppression (1 to 10%) including anemia, pancytopenia,
  • leucopenia & thrombocytopenia
  • Diarrhea (4 to 8%),
  • Headache, Insomnia, Dizziness (2 to 6%)
  • Nausea, vomiting (1 to 3.7%),
  • Altered taste or tongue discoloration (1 to 2%)
  • Transient elevation in liver function test (1 to 2%).
  • Pseudo membranous colitis
slide31

LINEZOLID is contraindicated for use in patients who have known hypersensitivity to Linezolid or any of the other product components.

  • .
slide34

Ingestion of Tyramine containing foods

  • may cause hypertensive crisis.
  • .
  • Limit intake of Tyramine containing
  • foods to less than 100 mg/meal
slide35

Linezolid is not an inducer of

  • cytochrome p450 (CYP).
  • Therefore no CYP 450 induced
  • drug interactions are expected.
  • So the drugs like Warfarin and
  • Phenytoin can be given without
  • dose alteration.
  • .
slide36

Monoamine Oxidase inhibiter:

  • It is a reversible non selective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase. Therefore, it has potential for interaction with adrenergic and serotonergic agents such
  • as Tricyclic antidepressants, Detromethorpan and
  • Trazodone.
  • .
slide38

Store reconstituted preparation at room

  • temperature and use within 21 days.
  • Store infusion bag in over wrap until
  • ready to use. The yellow color of
  • infusion solution may intensify over
  • time without adversely affecting the
  • potency.
  • Store at room temperature & protect
  • from light.
  • Injection is compatible with D5, RL, NS
slide39

Avoid excessive amount of Tyramine

  • containing foods; Red wine, Aged
  • cheese, Smoked or pickled fish, Beef
  • or chicken liver, dried sausage, fava
  • or broad bean.
  • Notify in case of persistent or
  • worsening of symptoms of infection,
  • diarrhea, nausea or vomiting.
  • Complete course of therapy even if
  • symptoms improve.
  • .
slide41

-Injection: 200mg (100 ml)

  • 400mg (200 ml)
  • 600mg (300 ml)
  • Infuse over 30-120 mins. Do not infuse
  • with any other medication. Flush IV
  • line before & after infusion with
  • compatible solution.
  • - Suspension: Dry powder 20mg/ml
  • Gently invert bottle 3-5 times. Do not
  • shake.
  • - Tablet: 400mg, 600mg
slide43

Linospan (Cipla)

  • Linox (Unichem)
  • Lizolid (Integrace)
  • Lizomed (Aglomed)