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Chapter 11. Individual Differences and Measurement of Energy Capacities. Specificity. High O 2 max in one event doesn’t ensure a high O 2 max in another event. High Aerobic  High Anaerobic Power High Anaerobic  High Aerobic Power. Generality.

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chapter 11

Chapter 11

Individual Differences and Measurement of Energy Capacities

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

specificity
Specificity
  • High O2max in one event doesn’t ensure a high O2max in another event.
  • High Aerobic  High Anaerobic Power
  • High Anaerobic  High Aerobic Power

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

generality
Generality
  • High aerobic power usually indicates above-average power in related activities.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

overview of energy transfer capacity during exercise
Overview of Energy-Transfer Capacity During Exercise

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

anaerobic energy transfer evaluation of immediate energy systems
Anaerobic Energy Transfer: Evaluation of Immediate Energy Systems
  • Power tests: used to measure brief maximal capacity
    • Tests generally < 6 seconds
  • Power is calculated as

Power = force × distance

time

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

power is expressed in watts
Power Is Expressed in Watts

1 watt = 0.73756 ft-lbs · s-1

1 watt = 0.01433 kCal · min-1

1 watt = 0.0013 hp

1 watt = 6.12 kg · m · min-1

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

stair sprinting power tests
Stair Sprinting Power Tests
  • Time to sprint up 6 steps, 3 at a time, is determined

Power = kg body wt × distance in meters

time in seconds

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

slide8
McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition
jumping power tests
Jumping-Power Tests
  • Sergeant jump test
    • Low correlation with scores and actual

ATP-PCr energy transfer

  • Standing broad jump

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

slide10
McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition
interrelationships among power performance tests
Interrelationships Among Power Performance Tests
  • Power is highly task specific.
  • The usefulness of a test increases when it mimics sport performance.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

evaluation of immediate energy system physiologic tests
Evaluation of Immediate Energy System: Physiologic Tests
  • Physiologic biochemical measures evaluate
    • Size of intramuscular ATP-PCr pool
    • Depletion rate of ATP and PCr in all-out short-duration exercise
    • O2 deficit calculated from initial phase of exercise O2 consumption curve
    • Alactic portion of recovery O2 consumption

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

evaluation of the short term energy system
Evaluation of the Short-Term Energy System
  • After a few seconds of work, glycolysis generates increasingly more energy for ATP resynthesis.
  • As the rate of glycolysis increases, lactate accumulates.
  • Blood lactate levels provide the most common indicator of glycolytic activity.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

anaerobic power performance and capacity tests
Anaerobic Power Performance and Capacity Tests
  • Performances that substantially activate short-term energy systems require maximum exercise for up to 3 minutes.
    • Influences
      • Age • Skill
      • Gender • Motivation
      • Body size

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

tests that most closely mimic the sport s performance are the best
Tests that Most Closely Mimic the Sport’s Performance Are the Best!
  • Some good, commonly used tests include
    • Katch test
    • Wingate test
  • Both give measures of peak power and anaerobic capacity.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

slide16
McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition
slide17
McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition
gender differences
Gender Differences
  • Males generally score better than females.
  • Difference in gender occur even in children and adolescents despite corrections for lean body mass.
  • Evidence suggests a biologic difference in anaerobic exercise between genders.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

maximally accumulated o 2 deficit
Maximally Accumulated O2 Deficit
  • Determination of MAOD provides another indirect measure of anaerobic capacity.
  • MAOD is determined using the linear exercise intensity_O2 consumption relationship.
  • Data is collected from several submaximal treadmill trials.
  • Correlates positively with other tests

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

biologic indicators for anaerobic power
Biologic Indicators for Anaerobic Power
  • Blood lactate levels
  • Glycogen depletion

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

slide21
McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition
individual differences in anaerobic energy transfer capacity
Individual Differences in Anaerobic Energy-Transfer Capacity
  • Factors contributing to differences include
    • Previous training
    • Capacity to buffer acid metabolites
    • Motivation

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

effects of training
Effects of Training
  • Anaerobically trained individuals have
    • Greater lactate-generating capabilities
    • Greater depletion of muscle glycogen

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

buffering of acid metabolites
Buffering of Acid Metabolites
  • Training fails to increase alkaline reserve.
  • Ingestion of sodium bicarbonate may increase buffering capacity and improve performance.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

motivation
Motivation
  • Individuals willing to tolerate pain or exhibit mental toughness are able to generate more lactate and experience greater glycogen depletion.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

aerobic energy the long term energy system
Aerobic Energy: The Long-Term Energy System
  • Maximal oxygen capacity plays a large role in determining endurance performance.
  • Attaining a high O2max requires integration of pulmonary, CV, and neuromuscular function.
  • O2 max is a fundamental measure of physiologic functional capacity for exercise.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

assessment of maximal o 2 consumption
Assessment of Maximal O2 Consumption
  • Considerable research has been done to develop standardized tests to assess aerobic power and provide norms related to
    • Age
    • Gender
    • Body size
    • Training state

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

criteria for maximal o 2 consumption
Criteria for Maximal O2 Consumption
  • A leveling off in O2 consumption despite an increase in exercise intensity generally assures

O2max has been reached.

  • Controversy regarding precise criteria remains.
  • O2peak = highest value of oxygen consumption measured during graded test exercise

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

maximal o 2 consumption tests
Maximal O2 Consumption Tests
  • O2max is determined using exercise that activate the body’s large muscle groups
    • Treadmill
    • Bench stepping
    • Stationary cycling
  • Test usually consists of graded exercise with much prodding to reach O2max or O2peak.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

test comparisons
Test Comparisons
  • Two popular protocols are available.
    • Continuous
    • Discontinuous

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

factors that affect max o 2 consumption
Factors that Affect Max O2 Consumption
  • Mode of exercise
  • Heredity
  • State of training
  • Gender
  • Body size and composition
  • Age

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

mode of exercise
Mode of Exercise
  • Influences muscle mass activated
  • Treadmill usually > cycling
  • Bench stepping similar to treadmill scores
  • Arm cranking only ~ 70% treadmill values
  • Specificity and skill are very influential in many modes.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

heredity
Heredity
  • Most physical fitness characteristics demonstrate high heritability.
  • Research shows that up to 93% of difference in O2max is due to heredity.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

state of training
State of Training
  • 5 − 20% variation in scores seen as fitness levels of individuals changed at time of testing

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

gender
Gender
  • Women achieve scores on average 15 − 30% lower than men.
  • Differences may be due to

1. Muscle mass

2. Hemoglobin concentration

  • Considerable variability exists; many women score higher than the average man.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

body size and composition
Body Size and Composition
  • Body size creates large differences.
  • Common practice: Express O2max relative to body mass
  • Controversy exists about various methods of adjusting scores to normalcy for gender differences
  • Adjustments made by each factor gives different results.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

slide37
Age
  • O2max declines after age 25 by ~ 1% per year.
  • Age also influences O2max values in boys and girls.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

aerobic capacity prediction tests
Aerobic Capacity Prediction Tests
  • Submaximal tests are used to
    • Decrease cost
    • Decrease time
    • Decrease risk

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

a word of caution about predictions
A Word of Caution about Predictions
  • All prediction tests contain an error known as the standard error of estimate (SEE).
  • SEE is expressed in measurement units used for prediction or as a percentage.
  • Sometimes the SEE can be large.
  • At times, the SEE is small, and the test is more useful.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

prediction tests commonly used
Prediction Tests Commonly Used
  • Walking tests
  • Endurance runs
  • Step tests

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

predictions based on heart rate
Predictions Based on Heart Rate
  • Use exercise or postexercise heart rate and a standardized exercise regimen
  • Apply linear relationship between heart rate and O2 consumption
  • Data are gathered at several workloads.
  • A line or “best fit” is extended through predicted maximum heart rate.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

assumptions required for hr predictions
Assumptions Required for HR Predictions
  • Linearity of HR – O2 consumption through all exercise intensities
  • Similar maximum HR for all subjects
  • Constant economy and mechanical efficiency throughout exercise
  • Limited daily variations in HR (usually 5 beats/min-1)

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

the step test
The Step Test
  • Practical test that uses HR during recovery
  • Prediction equations applied to test results estimate O2max with reasonable accuracy.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

predictions from nonexercise data
Predictions from Nonexercise Data
  • Data used
    • Gender
    • BMI
    • Physical activity rating (PAR)
      • 0 − 10 over 6 months
    • Perceived functional ability (PFA)

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

predictions from nonexercise data1
Predictions from Nonexercise Data
  • Regression equations are then used to calculate scores.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

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