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Chapter 11. Individual Differences and Measurement of Energy Capacities. Specificity. High O 2 max in one event doesn’t ensure a high O 2 max in another event. High Aerobic  High Anaerobic Power High Anaerobic  High Aerobic Power. Generality.

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Chapter 11

Chapter 11

Individual Differences and Measurement of Energy Capacities

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Specificity
Specificity

  • High O2max in one event doesn’t ensure a high O2max in another event.

  • High Aerobic  High Anaerobic Power

  • High Anaerobic  High Aerobic Power

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Generality
Generality

  • High aerobic power usually indicates above-average power in related activities.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Overview of energy transfer capacity during exercise
Overview of Energy-Transfer Capacity During Exercise

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Anaerobic energy transfer evaluation of immediate energy systems
Anaerobic Energy Transfer: Evaluation of Immediate Energy Systems

  • Power tests: used to measure brief maximal capacity

    • Tests generally < 6 seconds

  • Power is calculated as

    Power = force × distance

    time

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Power is expressed in watts
Power Is Expressed in Watts Systems

1 watt = 0.73756 ft-lbs · s-1

1 watt = 0.01433 kCal · min-1

1 watt = 0.0013 hp

1 watt = 6.12 kg · m · min-1

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Stair sprinting power tests
Stair Sprinting Power Tests Systems

  • Time to sprint up 6 steps, 3 at a time, is determined

    Power = kg body wt × distance in meters

    time in seconds

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


McArdle, Katch, and Katch: SystemsExercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Jumping power tests
Jumping-Power Tests Systems

  • Sergeant jump test

    • Low correlation with scores and actual

      ATP-PCr energy transfer

  • Standing broad jump

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


McArdle, Katch, and Katch: SystemsExercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Interrelationships among power performance tests
Interrelationships Among Power Performance Tests Systems

  • Power is highly task specific.

  • The usefulness of a test increases when it mimics sport performance.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Evaluation of immediate energy system physiologic tests
Evaluation of Immediate Energy System: Physiologic Tests Systems

  • Physiologic biochemical measures evaluate

    • Size of intramuscular ATP-PCr pool

    • Depletion rate of ATP and PCr in all-out short-duration exercise

    • O2 deficit calculated from initial phase of exercise O2 consumption curve

    • Alactic portion of recovery O2 consumption

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Evaluation of the short term energy system
Evaluation of the Short-Term Energy System Systems

  • After a few seconds of work, glycolysis generates increasingly more energy for ATP resynthesis.

  • As the rate of glycolysis increases, lactate accumulates.

  • Blood lactate levels provide the most common indicator of glycolytic activity.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Anaerobic power performance and capacity tests
Anaerobic Power Performance and Capacity Tests Systems

  • Performances that substantially activate short-term energy systems require maximum exercise for up to 3 minutes.

    • Influences

      • Age • Skill

      • Gender • Motivation

      • Body size

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Tests that most closely mimic the sport s performance are the best
Tests that Most Closely SystemsMimic the Sport’s Performance Are the Best!

  • Some good, commonly used tests include

    • Katch test

    • Wingate test

  • Both give measures of peak power and anaerobic capacity.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


McArdle, Katch, and Katch: SystemsExercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


McArdle, Katch, and Katch: SystemsExercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Gender differences
Gender Differences Systems

  • Males generally score better than females.

  • Difference in gender occur even in children and adolescents despite corrections for lean body mass.

  • Evidence suggests a biologic difference in anaerobic exercise between genders.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Maximally accumulated o 2 deficit
Maximally Accumulated O Systems2 Deficit

  • Determination of MAOD provides another indirect measure of anaerobic capacity.

  • MAOD is determined using the linear exercise intensity_O2 consumption relationship.

  • Data is collected from several submaximal treadmill trials.

  • Correlates positively with other tests

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Biologic indicators for anaerobic power
Biologic Indicators for SystemsAnaerobic Power

  • Blood lactate levels

  • Glycogen depletion

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


McArdle, Katch, and Katch: SystemsExercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Individual differences in anaerobic energy transfer capacity
Individual Differences in Anaerobic Energy-Transfer Capacity Systems

  • Factors contributing to differences include

    • Previous training

    • Capacity to buffer acid metabolites

    • Motivation

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Effects of training
Effects of Training Systems

  • Anaerobically trained individuals have

    • Greater lactate-generating capabilities

    • Greater depletion of muscle glycogen

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Buffering of acid metabolites
Buffering of Acid Metabolites Systems

  • Training fails to increase alkaline reserve.

  • Ingestion of sodium bicarbonate may increase buffering capacity and improve performance.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Motivation
Motivation Systems

  • Individuals willing to tolerate pain or exhibit mental toughness are able to generate more lactate and experience greater glycogen depletion.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Aerobic energy the long term energy system
Aerobic Energy: SystemsThe Long-Term Energy System

  • Maximal oxygen capacity plays a large role in determining endurance performance.

  • Attaining a high O2max requires integration of pulmonary, CV, and neuromuscular function.

  • O2 max is a fundamental measure of physiologic functional capacity for exercise.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Assessment of maximal o 2 consumption
Assessment of Maximal O Systems2 Consumption

  • Considerable research has been done to develop standardized tests to assess aerobic power and provide norms related to

    • Age

    • Gender

    • Body size

    • Training state

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Criteria for maximal o 2 consumption
Criteria for Maximal O Systems2 Consumption

  • A leveling off in O2 consumption despite an increase in exercise intensity generally assures

    O2max has been reached.

  • Controversy regarding precise criteria remains.

  • O2peak = highest value of oxygen consumption measured during graded test exercise

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Maximal o 2 consumption tests
Maximal O Systems2 Consumption Tests

  • O2max is determined using exercise that activate the body’s large muscle groups

    • Treadmill

    • Bench stepping

    • Stationary cycling

  • Test usually consists of graded exercise with much prodding to reach O2max or O2peak.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Test comparisons
Test Comparisons Systems

  • Two popular protocols are available.

    • Continuous

    • Discontinuous

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Factors that affect max o 2 consumption
Factors that Affect Max O Systems2 Consumption

  • Mode of exercise

  • Heredity

  • State of training

  • Gender

  • Body size and composition

  • Age

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Mode of exercise
Mode of Exercise Systems

  • Influences muscle mass activated

  • Treadmill usually > cycling

  • Bench stepping similar to treadmill scores

  • Arm cranking only ~ 70% treadmill values

  • Specificity and skill are very influential in many modes.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Heredity
Heredity Systems

  • Most physical fitness characteristics demonstrate high heritability.

  • Research shows that up to 93% of difference in O2max is due to heredity.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


State of training
State of Training Systems

  • 5 − 20% variation in scores seen as fitness levels of individuals changed at time of testing

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Gender
Gender Systems

  • Women achieve scores on average 15 − 30% lower than men.

  • Differences may be due to

    1. Muscle mass

    2. Hemoglobin concentration

  • Considerable variability exists; many women score higher than the average man.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Body size and composition
Body Size and Composition Systems

  • Body size creates large differences.

  • Common practice: Express O2max relative to body mass

  • Controversy exists about various methods of adjusting scores to normalcy for gender differences

  • Adjustments made by each factor gives different results.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Age Systems

  • O2max declines after age 25 by ~ 1% per year.

  • Age also influences O2max values in boys and girls.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Aerobic capacity prediction tests
Aerobic Capacity Prediction Tests Systems

  • Submaximal tests are used to

    • Decrease cost

    • Decrease time

    • Decrease risk

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


A word of caution about predictions
A Word of Caution about Predictions Systems

  • All prediction tests contain an error known as the standard error of estimate (SEE).

  • SEE is expressed in measurement units used for prediction or as a percentage.

  • Sometimes the SEE can be large.

  • At times, the SEE is small, and the test is more useful.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Prediction tests commonly used
Prediction Tests Commonly Used Systems

  • Walking tests

  • Endurance runs

  • Step tests

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Predictions based on heart rate
Predictions Based on Heart Rate Systems

  • Use exercise or postexercise heart rate and a standardized exercise regimen

  • Apply linear relationship between heart rate and O2 consumption

  • Data are gathered at several workloads.

  • A line or “best fit” is extended through predicted maximum heart rate.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Assumptions required for hr predictions
Assumptions Required for HR Predictions Systems

  • Linearity of HR – O2 consumption through all exercise intensities

  • Similar maximum HR for all subjects

  • Constant economy and mechanical efficiency throughout exercise

  • Limited daily variations in HR (usually 5 beats/min-1)

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


The step test
The Step Test Systems

  • Practical test that uses HR during recovery

  • Prediction equations applied to test results estimate O2max with reasonable accuracy.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Predictions from nonexercise data
Predictions from Nonexercise Data Systems

  • Data used

    • Gender

    • BMI

    • Physical activity rating (PAR)

      • 0 − 10 over 6 months

    • Perceived functional ability (PFA)

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


Predictions from nonexercise data1
Predictions from Nonexercise Data Systems

  • Regression equations are then used to calculate scores.

McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition


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