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Voltage in Electrical Systems. 1.3.2. Objectives. Define electric potential, or voltage. Differentiate between AC and DC. Identify the most common source of DC voltage. Describe how to connect DC voltage sources so that voltage will be added.

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Objectives
Objectives

  • Define electric potential, or voltage.

  • Differentiate between AC and DC.

  • Identify the most common source of DC voltage.

  • Describe how to connect DC voltage sources so that voltage will be added.


Unit is Newton per Coulomb (N/C)

Click on this link to go to an electric field simulation from Phet


Electrical potential
Electrical Potential predict how forces are transmitted from one object to another.

  • Potential energy – energy of a particle associated with its position.


Electrical potential1
Electrical Potential predict how forces are transmitted from one object to another.

  • When charges are within an electric field an electrical potential difference is created.

  • Volt – unit of measurement for potential difference. (electrical potential, voltage)

  • Voltage is the prime mover in electrical systems (like pressure in fluid system).


Gravitational potential difference predict how forces are transmitted from one object to another. – ability to accelerate a mass between two heights.

GPE = mgh

Electric potential difference (or voltage) – ability to accelerate an electric charge between two points in an electric field.

V = E  d

Units: N•m, or J

Units: N•m/C, or J/C (or Volt, V)


Electrical potential2
Electrical Potential predict how forces are transmitted from one object to another.

Flow caused by “potential” difference

Fluid system

Electrical system

Current – Flow


Recall, pressure is a prime mover in fluid sytems. predict how forces are transmitted from one object to another.

Voltage is a prime mover in electrical systems.

The flow of charge is called current. Current continues until the plates are neutral.



Components of electrical systems fig 1 37
Components of Electrical Systems (fig. 1.37) predict how forces are transmitted from one object to another.

  • Voltage source (battery or generator)

  • Conductors (wires or circuit board)

  • Load (motor, lights, etc.)

  • Control element (switch)

Electrical circuit

Control

Voltage source

Electrical Load

conductors


  • Load predict how forces are transmitted from one object to another. – an appliance or machine.

  • Conductor – material through which charge can easily flow.

  • Control element – a switch that turns the current in the system on or off.

  • Electrical circuit – closed path for current flow created by connecting voltage sources, conductors, control elements, and loads.

Electrical circuit

Control

Voltage source

Electrical Load

conductors


Direct current and alternating current
Direct Current and Alternating Current predict how forces are transmitted from one object to another.

  • Two types of current (or charge) in electrical systems:

    • Direct current (DC) – current flows in one direction.

      • Produced by batteries

    • Alternating current (AC) – current flows back and forth many time each second.

      • Produced by alternators


Ac vs dc
AC vs. DC predict how forces are transmitted from one object to another.

  • Direct Current (DC) – charge flows in one direction.

    • Batteries

    • Solar Panels

  • Alternating Current (AC) – charge flows back and forth.

    • Alternators

    • Generators


  • Cell predict how forces are transmitted from one object to another. – single unit that houses on or more chemicals.

    • Electrons and ions are separated in a cell creating a voltage.

    • Voltage depends on the chemicals used (Table 1.6).

  • Battery – a collection of two or more cells connected together.

  • Battery is “dead” when voltage drops below that required to drive the load.

  • Types of cells (Figure 1.38)

    • Primary cell – one-time use.

    • Secondary cell – rechargeable.


Connecting cells to add their voltages
Connecting Cells to Add Their Voltages predict how forces are transmitted from one object to another.

  • Can be added by connecting cells in series, connecting the positive terminal from one cell to the negative terminal of the next cell.

    • Individual voltages of each cell adds together (Figure 1.39).

  • In the circuit, electrons move out of the negative terminal/electrode (or cathode) and enter the positive electrode (or anode)


Electrical symbols
ELECTRICAL SYMBOLS predict how forces are transmitted from one object to another.

  • Wire

  • Switch

  • Lamp

  • Load

  • Battery

  • AC power


A simple dc circuit
A Simple DC Circuit predict how forces are transmitted from one object to another.


Dc circuit
DC circuit predict how forces are transmitted from one object to another.

Use this Phet web site link for DC Circuit Construction to download and practice making DC circuits.

Click on this Phet web site link for DC Circuit Lab to get more practice with DC circuits


Ac circuits
AC Circuits predict how forces are transmitted from one object to another.

  • Positive and negative terminals change many times per second.

  • Majority at a rate of 60 cycles per second

    • Cycling rate, called frequency.

    • Measured in hertz, cycles per second (1/s, or Hz).


AC Circuit Demonstration predict how forces are transmitted from one object to another.

Click on this Phet web link on AC Current – click on the link, download the program and practice making AC circuits

Click on this Phet web link for the AC Current Lab simulation.


Unit is Newton per Coulomb (N/C) predict how forces are transmitted from one object to another.

Electrical force

  • SI unit for charge is the Coulomb (C).

  • Elementary charge of one electron or proton is 1.60 x 10-19C

  • q1 and q2 are the charges on two objects.

  • d = distance between charged objects

  • K = constant = 9.0 x 109 N•m2/C2

Electric field


Voltage predict how forces are transmitted from one object to another.

E = electric field

d = distance

Unit is volts

V = E x d

Electric field

Unit is V/m

E = V/d

distance

Unit is meters

d = V/E

Net Voltage

Vnet = Vf – Vi

Charge

# of electrons x elementary charge

1 electron

Unit is Coloumb


Direct current predict how forces are transmitted from one object to another.

Total voltage is the sum of all voltage sources

Vt = V1 + V2 + V3….

Battery + battery + battery – conductor (wire) – load – wire

.

Alternating current

Total voltage is difference between the voltage sources on each side of the load.

Vt = V on side one – V on side 2

Battery – conductor – load – battery in reversed position - conductor


Electrical symbols1
ELECTRICAL SYMBOLS predict how forces are transmitted from one object to another.

  • Wire

  • Switch

  • Lamp

  • Load

  • Battery

  • AC power


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