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11/23 生物的消化、吸收代謝機制 環境污染評估 – 個體、族群、群聚及生態系層次 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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11/23 生物的消化、吸收代謝機制 環境污染評估 – 個體、族群、群聚及生態系層次. Assessment of pollution impacts. Impacts on the individual level : Lethal effects Death ︰Sublethal effects Physiological stress Tumours Developmental abnormalities.

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11/23

生物的消化、吸收代謝機制

環境污染評估 –

個體、族群、群聚及生態系層次



Impacts on the individual level

:Lethal effects

Death

︰Sublethal effects

Physiological stress

Tumours

Developmental abnormalities


Measuring changes at individual level

︰Lethal effects (LE)

Measurement of toxicity –

LT50 (median lethal time)

LC50 (median lethal concentration)

LD (dosage)

LE50, LE100, LE1 (effectiveness)


Cumulative percentage mortality of mussels, Mytilus in (I) 10-2M, (ii) 10-3M, (iii) 10-5M, (iv) 10-6M solution of zinc sulphate (Clark, 1997).

MFO –mixed function oxygenase systems酵素系統(from Rand, 1995)

Scope for growth of Mytilus (c) in (b) stations in pollution gradient at Narragansett Bay (Clark, 1997).

The sewage sludge dump site in the Firth of Clyde (Clark, 1997).

Species abundance plots of the benthic macrofauna the sewage sludge dump site in the Firth of Clyde (Clark, 1997).



Measuring changes at individual level and

- Sublethal effects

‧Molecular biomarkers, e.g.

Detoxication (detoxification) –

metallothioneins

mixed function oxygenases (MFO)

other detoxication enzymes

Heat shock proteins

‧Pysiological responses, e.g.

Scope for growth, activity


Sources of variation in bioassays and

Variation Comparing responses Ratio range

Age old : young 0.01 – 1000

Sex male : female 0.5 - ≧5

Genotype more : less resistance 1-≧100

Acclimation with : without 1-≧10

Duration short : long term 1-100

‧Synergy and antagonism


Measuring changes at population level and

- Population density or/and biomass

- Focus on “Key species”

High conservation interest to humans

High commercial value

Dominant species in the community

Indicator species (bioindicator)


Measuring changes at community and ecosystem level and

★ Structural end points, e.g.

Species richness

Species abundance

Similarity

Biomass


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