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11/23 生物的消化、吸收代謝機制 環境污染評估 – 個體、族群、群聚及生態系層次

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11/23 生物的消化、吸收代謝機制 環境污染評估 – 個體、族群、群聚及生態系層次 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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11/23 生物的消化、吸收代謝機制 環境污染評估 – 個體、族群、群聚及生態系層次. Assessment of pollution impacts. Impacts on the individual level : Lethal effects Death ︰Sublethal effects Physiological stress Tumours Developmental abnormalities.

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slide1

11/23

生物的消化、吸收代謝機制

環境污染評估 –

個體、族群、群聚及生態系層次

slide3

Impacts on the individual level

:Lethal effects

Death

︰Sublethal effects

Physiological stress

Tumours

Developmental abnormalities

slide4

Measuring changes at individual level

︰Lethal effects (LE)

Measurement of toxicity –

LT50 (median lethal time)

LC50 (median lethal concentration)

LD (dosage)

LE50, LE100, LE1 (effectiveness)

slide5

Cumulative percentage mortality of mussels, Mytilus in (I) 10-2M, (ii) 10-3M, (iii) 10-5M, (iv) 10-6M solution of zinc sulphate (Clark, 1997).

MFO –mixed function oxygenase systems酵素系統(from Rand, 1995)

Scope for growth of Mytilus (c) in (b) stations in pollution gradient at Narragansett Bay (Clark, 1997).

The sewage sludge dump site in the Firth of Clyde (Clark, 1997).

Species abundance plots of the benthic macrofauna the sewage sludge dump site in the Firth of Clyde (Clark, 1997).

slide6
Hypothetical ABC curves for unpolluted, moderately polluted and
  • grossly polluted conditions (Clark, 1997).
  • Biomass: the mass of organisms present in an area or volume (g/m2)
  • Abundance: the number of organisms present in area or volume
  • (no./m2 )
slide7

Measuring changes at individual level

- Sublethal effects

‧Molecular biomarkers, e.g.

Detoxication (detoxification) –

metallothioneins

mixed function oxygenases (MFO)

other detoxication enzymes

Heat shock proteins

‧Pysiological responses, e.g.

Scope for growth, activity

slide8

Sources of variation in bioassays

Variation Comparing responses Ratio range

Age old : young 0.01 – 1000

Sex male : female 0.5 - ≧5

Genotype more : less resistance 1-≧100

Acclimation with : without 1-≧10

Duration short : long term 1-100

‧Synergy and antagonism

slide9

Measuring changes at population level

- Population density or/and biomass

- Focus on “Key species”

High conservation interest to humans

High commercial value

Dominant species in the community

Indicator species (bioindicator)

slide10

Measuring changes at community and ecosystem level

★ Structural end points, e.g.

Species richness

Species abundance

Similarity

Biomass

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