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New Zealand and Australia Vocational Education and Training. Elizabeth Eppel. Starting Points – Pre 1980. Dynamic complex system Starting conditions are important Low levels of skills training Employment for unskilled and school leavers

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New zealand and australia vocational education and training l.jpg

New Zealand and AustraliaVocational Education and Training

Elizabeth Eppel


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Starting Points – Pre 1980

  • Dynamic complex system

  • Starting conditions are important

    • Low levels of skills training

    • Employment for unskilled and school leavers

    • Culture of training restricted to a few large (mainly government) employers

    • Low percentages in final years of schooling and post school education


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Pressure for Change

  • Skill shortages and narrow training base

  • Technical training institutions under-funded and disconnected from industry

  • Schooling curriculum seen as irrelevant and disconnected from the needs of the labour market and post school education and training pathways

  • Technological improvements

  • High unemployment particularly youth and unskilled adults

  • Economic crisis followed by economic reform (regulatory, institutional, cultural)


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New Framework - 1990

  • Learning for Life philosophy

  • Holistic approach to all education and training = seamlessness

  • Articulation between school education and post school pathways

  • Political leadership


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Framework Elements

  • New agencies to lead implementation

  • Industry training bodies

  • National qualifications framework

  • Qualification development

  • Record of Learning

  • Recognition of Prior Learning

  • Funding for industry training

  • Registration and accreditation of providers


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Senior Secondary School

  • Curriculum changes

  • Qualification changes

  • School leaving age raised to 17

  • Focus on school to work and school to tertiary transitions

    • Alignment funding (STAR)

    • Course alignment

    • Workplace learning (Gateway)

    • Career planning and advice

    • Transition services for at risk young people


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Policy Debates

  • Academic vs. vocational learning

  • Public provision vs. private provision

  • Single vs. multiple accreditation agencies

  • Dual pathways vs. multiple pathways


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Implementation Challenges

  • Agency capability

  • Employer capability

  • ITO capability and coverage

  • Equity of outcomes

  • Public understanding and valuing of VET

  • Industry leadership

  • Labour market information

  • Making the links to local, regional and national economic development strategies

  • Understanding the complexity of the relationship between productivity and skills (vs. other inputs)


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More recent fine tuning

  • Tertiary Education Strategy

  • Strengthening role of polytechnics

  • Enhancing leadership role of ITOs

  • Strengthening the links to regional and national economic development strategies





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