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Holography. Seminar on 2 nd December 2009. Topics Discussed. INTRODUCTION Hologram & Holography History of holography Photography vs Holography HOLOGRAM- Recording & Reading Usages Types of hologram Holographic Memory Holographic Versatile Discs (HVD) Applications.

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Seminar on 2nd December 2009

Topics discussed

Topics Discussed...


Hologram & Holography

History of holography

Photography vs Holography

HOLOGRAM- Recording & Reading


Types of hologram

Holographic Memory

Holographic Versatile Discs (HVD)


Hologram holography

Hologram & Holography

  • A hologram is a flat surface that, under proper illumination, appears to contain a three-dimensional image.

  • Holography is the Nobel award-winning science

  • The hologram presents a true three dimensional recreation of the original object.

History of holography

History of holography

  • Invented in 1948 by Dennis Gabor for use in electron microscopy, before the invention of the laser

  • Leith and Upatnieks (1962) applied laser light to holography and introduced an important off-axis technique

Conventional vs holographic photography

Conventional vs. Holographic photography

  • Conventional:

    • 2-d version of a 3-d scene

    • Photograph lacks depth perception

    • Film sensitive only to radiant energy

    • Phase relation (i.e. interference) are lost

Conventional vs holographic photography1

Conventional vs. Holographic photography

  • Hologram:

    • Freezes the intricate wavefront of light that carries all the visual information of the scene

    • To view a hologram, the wavefront is reconstructed

    • View what we would have seen if present at the original scene through the window defined by the hologram

    • Provides depth perception



  • Recording:

    • Two laser beams used (Signal and Reference)

    • Data encoded on signal beam via Spatial Light Modulator

    • Second beam interfaces with reference beam through the volume of photosensitive recording medium


  • Reading:

    • Reference beam used to diffract off recorded gratings reconstructing stored array

Areas of holographic applications

Areas of Holographic Applications

  • Security

  • Entertainment

  • Packaging (Consumer Goods Brand Protection)

  • Gifts

  • Tax Stamp

  • Labels & Tapes

Areas of holographic applications1

Areas of Holographic Applications

  • Decoration

  • Art and Interactive Graphics

  • Architecture

  • Sports Events

Medical applications

Medical Applications

  • Holographic TechniquesX-Ray Holography

  • Endoscopic HolographyInternal Hologram Recording EndoscopeExternal Hologram recording EndoscopeMultiplexed Holography For Medical TomographyHolography in OphthalmologyDiffractive Bifocal Intraocular LensHolography in DentistryHolography in OtologyStudy of Tympanic Membranes

  • Holography in Orthopedics

Hologram reflection vs transmission

Hologram – Reflection vs. Transmission

  • Transmissionhologram: reference and object waves traverse the film from the same side

  • Reflection hologram: reference and object waves traverse the emulsion from opposite sides

View in Transmission

View in reflection

3 4 embossed holograms

3.4Embossed Holograms

Widely used in most security applications.

3 5 integral hologram

3.5Integral Hologram

  • Made from a series of photographs of an object. These are usually transparencies.

3 6 rainbow holograms

3.6Rainbow Holograms

  • Very practical holograms

  • Displaying three-dimensional images

  • Images are reconstructed by white light.

Computer generated holograms

Computer Generated Holograms

  • Holograms produced with the help of computer

  • Used for developing 2D and 3D holograms.

Multiplex hologram

Multiplex Hologram

  • Depicting the holographic storage of photographic information.

  • Produced by combining a large number of photographs in a holographic manner.

Holographic storage background

Holographic Storage - Background

  • Holographic Imaging discovered in 1947 by Hungarian Physicist

  • Original Theory was to improve electron microscopes

  • Holographic images on toys, credit cards, magazine covers, art, etc.

Holographic memory

Holographic Memory

  • storing 1 terabyte (TB) data in a sugar-cube-sized crystal.

  • Data from more than 1,000 CDs could fit on a holographic memory system.

  • recording multiple images in the same area utilizing light at different angles

  • capable of recording and reading millions of bits in parallel

  • Data transfer rate: 1 GB/sec

Holographic data storage

Holographic Data Storage

  • uses three-dimensional holographic images to enable more information to be stored in a much smaller space.

  • holography records and reads over a million bits of data with a single flash of light.

  • High storage densities and fast transfer rates, combined with durable, reliable, low cost media

  • 50 hours of high definition video on a single disk, 50,000 songs on a postage stamp, or 500,000 x-rays on a credit card. Holographic storage makes it all possible.

Storage trends

Storage Trends:

  • The future is storage-centric, stored data is the heart of a modern network.

  • By 2014 the average US household will have about 12 Terabytes of content stored

  •  Up to 1,600 Terabytes may be required for a complete digital movie production at 4K resolution

  • By 2015 personal content will greatly exceed commercial content and sharing of this content will multiple enormously total storage requirements.

Holographic versatile discs hvd

Holographic Versatile Discs (HVD)

0,7 GB

9 GB

30~50 GB

What is next ?

Holographic versatile discs hvd1

Holographic Versatile Discs (HVD)

  • few hundred movies on an optical disc? That's the goal of the Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD)

  • (1TB) of data onto a single optical disc - Half of the capacity would be enough to record six channels of TV for five and a half days non-stop

  • HVD disc could hold as much data as 200 standard DVDs

  • Transfer data at over 1 gigabit per second, or 40 times faster than a DVD.

Holographic versatile discs hvd2

Holographic Versatile Discs (HVD)

Page Data

1 Bit Data

Volumetric RecordingLayer






Page data are recorded into the volumetric recording layer in Holographic recording

Data are recorded on to the surface as bit by bit in CD/DVD System



Conventional Optical Disc

Applications of holography


  • Optical computers Will use holograms as "circuit elements". Parallel processing is made possible because when a hologram is addressed, all the information comes out simultaneously

Applications of holography1


Communication Holography

Applications of holography2



Applications of holography3


  • Mostly the holographic techniques have been used for biomedical applications.

  • X-ray holography

  • Endoscopic holography

  • Three dimensional images of biological specimens

  • Holography is useful for measurements for biomedical specimen.

Applications of holography4


  • Holograms are made inside live organs through optical fibers, providing more details than any previous alternate techniques.

  • Holographic interferometry is used in numerous laboratories for non-destructive testing. It visually reveals structural faults without damaging the specimen.

  • Instantaneous growth rate of a live plant can be directly observed through a hologram.

Applications of holography5


  • Anti-counterfeiting in credit card is now a common practice.

  • Holographic microfiche for high density information storage is more attractive then conventional microfiche.

  • Holographic scanners are used in store check-out counters for reading the bar codes

Zebra hologram

Zebra hologram

  • A 2-foot-by-3-foot colour Zebra hologram contains a staggering 2 terabytes (2 trillion characters) of data.

  • Zebra's "virtual camera" records a 3-D image file, like a map, from 500,000 slightly different perspectives. Each shot is encoded on a laser, focused through a spherical lens and burned onto a 1-millimeter section of plastic called a hogel.

Future applications of holographic technology

Future Applications of Holographic Technology

  • holographic televisions

  • Holographic cinematography

  • Holographic projector

  • holograms will revolutionize storage capacities.

  • Optical or holographic computers

  • holographic security methods

  • Using holograms in museums and exhibitions with animated multimedia content.

Holographic mobile

Holographic Mobile

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