Human Evolution: an overview
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Human Evolution: an overview. Dr Jeremy Pritchard. Hominoid: Great apes and humans Hominid: Closer to us than gorillas and chimps. You Cuz. Humans did not evolve from Apes You are descended from your mother and father

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Dr jeremy pritchard

Human Evolution: an overview

Dr Jeremy Pritchard


Dr jeremy pritchard

  • Hominoid: Great apes and humans

  • Hominid: Closer to us than gorillas and chimps


Dr jeremy pritchard

You Cuz

  • Humans did not evolve from Apes

  • You are descended from your mother and father

  • You are related to your aunt and cousin

Dad Mum Aunt Uncle


Dr jeremy pritchard

Common ancestor


Dr jeremy pritchard

Contemporary

animals


Dr jeremy pritchard

Contemporary

animals

Fossils


Dr jeremy pritchard

Organisms with common features are likely to have a more recent common ancestor.


Dr jeremy pritchard

Locomotion


Dr jeremy pritchard

Brachiation:

  • Grip

  • Stereo vision


Dr jeremy pritchard

Humerus

Femur


Dr jeremy pritchard

1. Chimpanzee 2. Australopithecus africanus 3. Homo erectus 4. Homo sapiens


Brain size

Brain size


Primate characteristics trends

Primate Characteristics/Trends

  • Brains larger than other animals


Dr jeremy pritchard

Brains larger than other animals in relation to body size

Log brain weight (g)

  • Brains larger than other animals

Log body weight (g)


Dr jeremy pritchard

Information from the skeleton

  • sex

  • age

  • stature

  • race/species

  • pathological conditions

  • skeletal trauma


Trauma

Trauma


Trauma1

Trauma


Trauma2

Trauma


Trauma3

Trauma


Dr jeremy pritchard

Proconsul


Dr jeremy pritchard

  • Sahelanthropus tchadensis

  • close to the common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees @ 7 million years


Australopithecus afarensis

Australopithecus afarensis

Lucy, discovered in Ethiopia in 1974.


Australopithecus africanus

Australopithecus africanus

Southern Ape of Africa


Don t run before you can walk

Don’t run before you can walk


Dr jeremy pritchard

Homo habilis (ca. 2.5-1.6 mya)


Dr jeremy pritchard

Homo erectus (1.6 mya-300 kya)


Dr jeremy pritchard

Homo neanderthal

Homo sapiens

Homo erectus

Homo habilis

Australopithicus africanus

ramapithicus


Neanderthals ca 100 32 kya

Neanderthals (ca. 100-32 kya)


Neanderthals ca 100 32 kya1

Neanderthals (ca. 100-32 kya)

  • Restricted to Europe, eastern Middle East during Ice Age

  • Evolved to be cold-adapted:

    • Short and stocky

    • Large nose (for warming air)

    • Barrel chest (for warming air)

    • Long, low, thick skull but with large Brain


Neanderthals are not our ancestors

Neanderthals are not our ancestors


Dr jeremy pritchard

NOT our ancestors….

Krings et al 1997 Neandertal DNA Sequences and the Origin of Modern Humans


Are we still evolving

Are we still evolving?

Microevolution: change in gene frequency - YES

Macro evolution : formation of species - NO


Are we still evolving1

Are we still evolving?

  • Some parts of Africa have seen an increase in the frequency of a gene called CCR5-32

  • Protects against infection with HIV-1.

  • May have been selected for during bubonic plague


Dr jeremy pritchard

Human Evolution - Chimps are our closest relative

25,000 genes 25, 000 genes


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