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The Mole , Ch. 10 You need a calculator from this chapter on. *The mole was invented as a way to describe number of atoms. *1 mole = 6.02 x 10 23 things. 602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 things. What if you had a mole of $1 bills?.

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slide4

*1 mole = 6.02 x 1023 things.

  • 602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 things.
converting moles to of particles
*Converting moles to # of particles
  • Convert 3 moles of aluminum to number of atoms of aluminum.
  • Convert 7 moles of methane to molecules of methane.
molar mass
*Molar Mass
  • One mole of an atom will weigh ___ grams (shown on the periodic table).
convert moles to grams
*Convert moles to grams
  • Mg. 1 mole  ? grams
  • 6.94 grams
try it
Try it:
  • 6 moles of H2O to grams.
  • 126 g of NaF to moles.
  • 108 grams, 3 moles
slide17

*A mole of any gas takes up 22.4 L (at STP). This is Avogadro’s Hypothesis.

  • This is like a cube with sides of 28.2 cm.
slide19

One mole of He, H, O, N, etc. will all take up 22.4 L.

  • Question: How many He atoms are there in 22.4 L?
  • Question: How many H2 molecules are there in 22.4 L?
gas density
Gas Density:
  • Often is measured in g/L.
  • What is the density of H2 gas at STP?
  • .089 g/L
slide25

Page 303, roadmap.

  • Try: 55 E23 particles of He to volume of gas. Try: 55 E23 particles of He to grams of gas.
slide26

Be able to solve mole problems.

  • Compare a mole of eggs to a dozen eggs.
  • What is a mole useful for?
percent composition
Percent Composition
  • Is the percent by mass of each element in the compound.
slide31

*Percent Composition from mass data:

  • 5.4 g of oxygen and 8.2 g of magnesium in a 13.6 gram compound.
  • 60.3% Mg, 39.7% O
slide32

*Percent composition from the chemical formula Find the amount of grams of each element in 1 mole of the compound, then find the %.

  • C3H8
  • 81.8% C, 18% H
slide34

*Empirical formula: Expresses the atoms in their lowest ratio.

  • *Molecular formula: Expresses the atoms in their actual abundance.
  • Exp: H2O2 HO
determining empirical formula
*Determining Empirical Formula:
  • 25.9% N
  • 74.1 % O
  • Assume 100 g of the compound, find the # of moles, then find the whole number ratio.
  • Answer = 2 mol N, 5 mol O
slide37

Empirical formula to Molecular formula If the empirical formula is CH4N and the molecular molar mass is 60 g/mol, what is the molecular formula?

  • C2H8N2
assignment
Assignment
  • Draw and explain with words:
  • If you could have a mole of anything, what would you want and why?
  • Can be creative and funny.
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