The chemistry of life
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The Chemistry of Life. - the basics and biological molecules. Essential Questions :. What is matter? Which elements are most abundant in living things? What are the four major classes of biological molecules?. Chemistry for 2000 years.

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The Chemistry of Life

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The Chemistry of Life

- the basics and biological molecules.


Essential Questions:

  • What is matter?

  • Which elements are most abundant in living things?

  • What are the four major classes of biological molecules?


Chemistry for 2000 years

  • Around 450 B.C., a Greek philosopher named Empedocles proposed that all matter was made of four “elements”—air, earth, fire, and water. He thought that all other matter was a combination of two or more of these four elements. The idea of four elements was so convincing that people believed it for more than 2,000 years.


Chemistry Today

  • Thanks to many scientists, including Mendeleev, we define matter as anything that has mass & takes up space.

    • Mass being the “muchness” of stuff; and the space it occupies is measured by volume.

  • Weight is mass with the force of gravity.


Chemistry Today cont…

  • Pure substances that can not be broken down anymore are elements.

    • Ex: Au, Ag, H, O, N, C, Zn, etc…

    • Today, we know just over 100.

  • Elements have basic representative particles called atoms. Atoms have three parts: protons (+), neutrons (n) & electrons (-).


  • Atoms/elements combine to form molecules and/or compounds.

  • A molecule is a particle made of two or more atoms.

  • A compound is a pure substance of two or more elements chemically combined.

  • A mixture is two or more substances mixed together but not chemically combined.


  • Solid: definite volume & shape.

  • Liquid: definite volume, no shape of it’s own.

  • Gas: neither definite volume nor shape.


  • Not randomly designed.

  • Trends are present

    • Ex: Atomic size, ionization energy, atomic radii


HONC CaP

  • Close to 99% of all living material (matter) is made from only 6 special elements:

    • Hydrogen [H]

    • Oxygen [O]

    • Nitrogen [N]

    • Carbon [C]

    • Calcium [Ca]

    • Phosphorus [P]

  • Organic matter must contain both C & H.


Review:

Atom

Compound

Electron

Element

Gas

Liquid

Mass

Matter

Mixture

Molecule

Neutron

Proton

Solid

Volume

Weight

New/Review:

Amino acid

Carbohydrate

Cellulose

Glucose

Lipid

Nucleic acid (RNA, DNA)

Organic

pH

Protein

Important Vocabulary


High School Challenge:

  • What is ATP?

  • What role does ATP play in cells? (give examples)

  • Correctly sketch Glucose.

  • Correctly draw the following functional groups:

    • Hydrogen

    • Hydroxyl

    • Carboxyl

    • Amino

    • Phosphate

    • Methyl


Carbohydrates-sugars & starches

Glucose


Carbohydrates


Proteins-building blocks: amino acids.

Keratin


Proteins


Lipids-building blocks: fatty acids


Lipids


Nucleic acids-building blocks: nucleotides


Nucleic acids


Are there other acids?


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