Solutions
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Solutions. IB Chemistry: Chapter 1 Section 1.5. What parts make up a solution?. Solution is a mixture of two components. 1. Solute: less abundant component, the substance being dissolved 2. Solvent: more abundant component, the dissolver Solutions in water are called aqueous ( aq ).

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Solutions

Solutions

IB Chemistry: Chapter 1 Section 1.5


What parts make up a solution

What parts make up a solution?

  • Solution is a mixture of two components.

    • 1. Solute: less abundant component, the substance being dissolved

    • 2. Solvent: more abundant component, the dissolver

    • Solutions in water are called aqueous (aq).


Concentration

Concentration

  • As more and more solute gets dissolved, the solution becomes more concentrated.

  • When the solvent can no longer dissolve any more solute, it is saturated. (If less solute is dissolved, unsaturated.)

  • Solution can dissolve more solute than usual under particular circumstances – supersaturated.


Molarity

Molarity

  • Molarity is a term we use to describe concentration.

  • M = mol/dm3, Molarity = moles (n) of solute dissolved in 1 dm3 of solution.

  • What is the molarity of 2.98g of NaCO3 in 500cm3 of solution?


Dilutions

Dilutions

  • Sometimes, we need a diluted solution for a particular procedure.

  • In order to dilute, you add water to a more concentrated solution.

  • The equation we use to determine how much concentrated solution we need is:

    • M1V1=M2V2


Types of mixtures

Types of Mixtures

  • Classified by:

    • Size of the particles

    • Whether they exhibit the Tyndall effect


Types of mixtures1

Types of Mixtures

  • Solution:

    • Particles are evenly distributed and do not separate on standing

    • No Tyndall Effect

    • Example: food coloring and water mixture


Solution example

Solution Example

Notice how you cannot see a distinction between solute and solvent. It is the same throughout the solution.


Types of mixtures2

Types of Mixtures

  • Suspensions:

    • Particles are not evenly distributed. Particles are suspended but will eventually settle into layers

    • Exhibits Tyndall Effect

    • Examples: Dirt and water mixture


Suspensions

Suspensions

The larger particles in a suspension settle out over time. Particles are only physically combined.


Types of mixtures3

Types of Mixtures

  • Colloids:

    • Particles are not evenly distributed. Particles are suspended but will eventually settle into layers

    • Exhibits Tyndall Effect

    • Examples: Dirt and water mixture


Colloids

Colloids

Looks like a solution to the naked eye. Particles are suspended. The particle size is the “in betweener”, larger than a solutions’ particles but smaller than a suspensions’ particles.


What is this tyndall effect

What is this “Tyndall effect”?

  • Light scattering by particles.

  • Found in colloids and suspensions, but not solutions.


Tyndall effect

Tyndall Effect


Hydrates

Hydrates

  • Hydrates are ionic compounds that have water molecules absorbed into the crystal lattice.

  • Hydrates are still solid, just have certain amounts of water attached to the ions.

  • An example of a hydrate is Copper (II) Sulfate pentahydrate:

    • CuSO4 ● 5H2O


Hydrates1

Hydrates

  • An example of a hydrate is:

    • CuSO4 5H2O

    • This means that for every 1 unit of copper sulfate, there are 5 units of water.

    • Or, for every 1 mole of copper sulfate there are 5 moles of water.

    • Solve for the molar mass. (The dot does not mean multiply, just add the mass of water to mass of copper sulfate.)


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