Reframing the discourse advertising rhetoric fails to combat islamophobia
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Reframing the Discourse: Advertising Rhetoric Fails to Combat Islamophobia. Eric Van Steenburg Doctoral Student University of North Texas Society for Marketing Advances Nov. 5, 2011. Agenda. Background Framing Islam Terror Management Theory Methodology for Advertising Critique Analysis

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Reframing the Discourse: Advertising Rhetoric Fails to Combat Islamophobia

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Reframing the discourse advertising rhetoric fails to combat islamophobia

Reframing the Discourse: Advertising Rhetoric Fails to Combat Islamophobia

Eric Van Steenburg

Doctoral Student

University of North Texas

Society for Marketing Advances

Nov. 5, 2011


Agenda

Agenda

  • Background

  • Framing Islam

  • Terror Management Theory

  • Methodology for Advertising Critique

  • Analysis

  • Recommendations

  • Questions


Background

Background

  • Islamophobia

  • Political rhetoric

  • Addressing the issue

  • CAIR Ad Campaign

  • Research Question

  • Research


Reframing the discourse advertising rhetoric fails to combat islamophobia

“9/11 Happened to Us All”

Firefighter


Framing islam

Framing Islam

  • “Freedom came under attack” (Bush 2001)

  • Good vs. Evil (Aslan 2009; Ivie 2007)

  • Theological basis (Murphy 2003; Ivie 2007)

  • “Axis of Evil” (Bush 2002)

  • Negative Differences (McPhail 1991)

  • Complicity (McPhail 1994, 2002)

  • Media’s role (Aly & Green 2008; Love 2009; Merskin 2003;

    Pew Forum 2007; Rozell 2010; Vultee 2006, 2009)


Terror management theory

Terror Management Theory

  • Mortality or jeopardized safety leads to

    increase in negative evaluations of other

    (Greenberg, Pyszczynski, & Solomon 1986)

  • Threatens individual’s beliefs and values

    (Rosenblatt et al. 1989)

  • Dehumanize the outgroup (Rosenblatt et al. 1989)

  • Effects on Good vs. Evil worldview

  • Discredit spokesperson

  • Muslims inherently un-American and a threat


Reframing the discourse advertising rhetoric fails to combat islamophobia

An ad’s meaning depends on a shared agreement in social communication where individual interpretation is governed by the social context of familiar patterns and themes combined with allusions to social and historical contexts.

– Dr. Barbara Stern (1989)


Methodology

Methodology

  • Use of literary criticism (Stern 1989; Stern 1991;

    Stern & Gallagher 1990)

  • Four-step methodology to critique (Stern 1989):

  • Analytical accounting of the text

  • Analysis of the context through sociocultural and historical perspectives

  • Structural and semiotic analysis

  • Consideration of who the audience is and what the desired outcome is of the message originator


Reframing the discourse advertising rhetoric fails to combat islamophobia

“9/11 Happened to Us All”

Medical Responder


Analysis

Analysis

  • Social construct with shared global context

  • Cultural ideology embedded in messages

  • Situates in a communal cultural ideology

  • Evokes established meaning

  • Reinforce a cultural worldview


Analysis1

Analysis

  • Narrative approach

  • Opening establishes the framework

  • Slowly provides contextual evidence

  • Text completes the link

  • Narrator as familiar “hero” narrative


Analysis2

Analysis

  • Thoughts of our mortality, threats to our

    safety, or moments of fear can have the

    effect of entrenching our cultural

    worldviews (Rosenblatt et al. 1989).

  • Significant relationship between mortality

    salience and reformation of individual

    established perspectives (Greenberg et al.

    1986; Pyszczynski et al. 2010; Rosenblatt et al. 1989)

  • Closely held beliefs about Islam and Muslims

    should surface


Analysis3

Analysis

  • Symbolic codes of the ad (Stern 1989)

  • Music – Depressing, serious, intended

    discomfort, anticipatory importance

    and/or impending doom

  • Visual framing

  • Waist view to a close-up

  • Fade to black

  • Fade in and out of text

  • Close-up at announcement

  • Identifier

  • Intent – Tension, evoke emotional response


Analysis4

Analysis

  • Purpose of using a narrator in an ad is to

    affect persuasion (Stern 1992)

  • Audio and visual elements along with text

    place viewers into context and provides a

    framework for advertisement experience

  • Depicts relationship between ad’s content,

    form, and values (Stern & Gallagher 1990).

  • Content creates a meaning that conveys

    values not only by what the message is,

    but how it is communicated.


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Establishing faith of the narrator reminds

    viewer of dichotomous framework

    established in our culture

  • Narrator becomes “other” and the cultural

    worldview of good vs. evil is confirmed

  • The choice to identify the narrators as

    Muslim undermines the credibility of the

    characters, thus nullifying any effects of

    persuasion.


Recommendations

Recommendations

  • Providing factual information to combat a

    cultural worldview also entrenches that

    worldview (Nyhan & Reifler 2010)

  • Staking a contradictory position or affirming

    the opposite rarely works in correcting

    misperceptions. Makes subject resist

    changes to ideologies that existed prior

    to the correction (Nyhan & Reifler 2010)

  • Can public opinion, when based on incorrect

    information, be corrected?


Recommendations1

Recommendations

  • Priming the event

  • Unsettling conclusion

  • Third-party narrative

  • Islamic faith focus

  • Condemn terrorism

  • Women’s status

  • American image


Reframing the discourse advertising rhetoric fails to combat islamophobia

“We Have More in Common than We Think”

Interfaith


Questions

Questions


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