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STANDALONE WIND INTERFACE GREEN ENERGY SCHEMES. Prof. Dr. A. M. Sharaf ECE, UNB, Canada http://www.ece.unb.ca/sharaf. Presentation Outline. Introduction Objectives DVR/MPF Stabilizing Scheme DCC Stabilizing Scheme GTO Interface Converter Scheme

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Prof. Dr. A. M. Sharaf ECE, UNB, Canada http://www.ece.unb.ca/sharaf

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STANDALONE WIND INTERFACE GREEN ENERGY SCHEMES

Prof. Dr. A. M. Sharaf

ECE, UNB, Canada

http://www.ece.unb.ca/sharaf


Presentation Outline

  • Introduction

  • Objectives

  • DVR/MPF Stabilizing Scheme

  • DCC Stabilizing Scheme

  • GTO Interface Converter Scheme

  • APC Stabilizing FACTS Scheme

  • Wind-Farm Electricity using PMDC Generator Scheme

  • Conclusion & Recommendation

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


Introduction

Wind Energy

  • Fast growing;

  • Expect to supply 10% of total Energy by 2025; Advantages (abundant, clean,renewable);

    Stand-alone WECS

  • Village electricity feeding hybrid motorized load

    Voltage-stability Problems and Mitigation Solution

  • Voltage instability & Compensation

  • Proposed interface/stabilization schemes (DVR/MPF, DCC, GTO Converter, APC, Wind-Farm PMDC)

    Digital simulation & validation using Matlab/Simulink/PS-Blockset

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


Introduction – cont’d

Stand-alone WECS structure

1:n

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


Research Objectives

  • Develop digital models (for machines, nonlinear loads, converter/compensator interface, PWM and novel stabilizing controllers)

  • Validate the village wind energy interface schemes using (DVR/MPF, DCC, APC, Converter)

  • Investigate Flexible AC Transmission FACTS-based dynamic controllers

  • Recommend low cost stand-alone village wind energy interface schemes

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


DVR/MPF Scheme

*Linear

*Nonlinear

*Motorized

Generator can be IG or PMSG

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


DVR/MPF Scheme – Cont’d

Hybrid Load

,

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


DVR/MPF Scheme – Cont’d

Dynamic Voltage Regulator & Modulated Power Filter

(developed by Dr. Sharaf)

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


DVR/MPF Scheme – Cont’dTypical GTO and Protection Circuits(ABB)

Turn on: Li----di/dt

Rs---discharge of Cs

Turn off: Cs----dv/dt

Data sheet

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


DVR/MPF Scheme – Cont’d Capacitor overvoltage Protection using Metal Oxide Varistors (MOV)

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


DVR/MPF Scheme – Cont’d

Main Loop

Tri—loop Controller (developed by Dr. Sharaf)

Supplementary Loops

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


DVR/MPF Scheme – Cont’dSimulation Results

Sequenced wind & load Disturbance: t=0.1s Load excursion applied, +30%; t=0.3s Load excursion removed, +30%; t=0.5s Wind Speed excursion applied, -30%; t=0.7s Wind Speed excursion removed, -30%.

Voltage vs time

Voltage vs time

Vw -30%

1

0.9

0.8

1

0.9

0.8

SL +30%

Without the DVR/MPF

With the DVR/MPF

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


DVR/MPF Scheme – Cont’dSimulation Results

Power vs Time

0.5

0.45

Vw -30%

0.4

0.35

SL +30%

With DVR/MPF

Without DVR/MPF

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


DVR/MPF Scheme – Cont’dSimulation Results

et

Vc

PWM pulses

time


DCC Scheme

DCC Scheme withIG (Induction Generator)

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


DCC Scheme – Cont’d

DCC

3 GTO switching stages

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


Controller parameters are selected by off-line guided trial & error for

* Best voltage stabilization

* Max Pg extraction

DCC Scheme – Cont’d

Dual-loop controller 1

Tri-loop Controller 2

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


DCC Scheme – Cont’d

Wind and load variation sequence:

t=0.1s Load excursion applied, +40%;t=0.3s Load excursion removed, +40%;t=0.5s Load excursion applied, -40%;t=0.7s Load excursion removed, -40%;t=0.9s Wind Speed excursion applied, -30%;

t=1.1s Wind Speed excursion removed, -30%;t=1.3s Wind Speed excursion applied, +30%;t=1.5s Wind Speed excursion removed, +30%;

Without DCC

With DCC

Vg_rms

+/-10%

Pg

time

time

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


DCC Scheme – Cont’d

Controller 2

Controller 1

et

Vc

PWM pulses


SPWM GTO Converter Scheme

Output LC Filter

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


SPWM GTO Converter Scheme – Cont’d

Smoothing

DC storage capacitor

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


SPWM GTO Converter Scheme – Cont’d

Loop #1 (V-Load)

Loop #2 (V-generator)

et

Vc

Modulation index

Loop #3 (V-DC-link)

Developed by Dr. Sharaf

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


SPWM GTO Converter Scheme – Cont’d (Dynamic simulation results)

Wind & Load disturbance sequence: t=0.03s Load excursion applied, +30%;t=0.04s Load excursion removed, +30%;t=0.05s Load excursion applied, -30%;t=0.06s Load excursion removed, -30%;t=0.07s Wind Speed excursion applied, -30%;t=0.08s Wind Speed excursion removed, -30%;t=0.09s Wind Speed excursion applied, +30%;

t=0.10s Wind Speed excursion removed, +30%;

Vg_rms

+/- 3%

Pg

Without SPWM GTO Converter

With SPWM GTO Converter

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


SPWM GTO Converter Scheme – Cont’d (Dynamic simulation results)

et

VL-rms

Vc

Vdc

pulses

time

time


Novel Active Power Compensator Scheme

Developed by Dr. Sharaf

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


Novel Active Power Compensator Scheme – Cont’d

P Q exchange at generator bus

** Asynchronous

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


Active Power Compensator Scheme – Cont’d

Loop #1 (Vg)

Loop #2 (Ig)

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


Active Power Compensator Scheme – Cont’d (simulation results)

Wind & Load disturbance sequence: t=0.03s Load excursion applied, +30%;t=0.04s Load excursion removed, +30%; t=0.05s Load excursion applied, -30%; t=0.06s Load excursion removed, -30%; t=0.07s Wind Speed excursion applied, -30%; t=0.08s Wind Speed excursion removed, -30%; t=0.09s Wind Speed excursion applied, +30%; t=0.10s Wind Speed excursion removed, +30%;

With APC

Without APC

Vg_rms

+/-5%

Pg

time

time

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


Active Power Compensator Scheme – Cont’d (simulation results)

Pf

et

Vc

Qf

Pulses1

time

time


A Novel Farm-Electricity WECS Scheme using PM-DC Generator

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


A Novel Farm-Electricity WECS Scheme using PM-DC Generator – Cont’d

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


A Novel Farm-Electricity WECS Scheme using PM-DC Generator – Cont’d

Loop #1 (V-Load) Stabilizer

Loop #2 (I-Load) Dynamic Tracking

Loop #3 (V-generator) Stabilizer

Developed by Dr. Sharaf

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


A Novel Farm-Electricity WECS Scheme using PM-DC Generator – Cont’d (Simulation results)

Wind & Load disturbance sequence: t=0.03s Load excursion applied, +30%;t=0.04s Load excursion removed, +30%; t=0.05s Load excursion applied, -30%; t=0.06s Load excursion removed, -30%; t=0.07s Wind Speed excursion applied, -30%; t=0.08s Wind Speed excursion removed, -30%; t=0.09s Wind Speed excursion applied, +30%; t=0.10s Wind Speed excursion removed, +30%;

Vg

Pg

time

time

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


A Novel Farm-Electricity WECS Scheme using PM-DC Generator – Cont’d (Simulation results)

Vinverter

et

Vc

VL

VL-mag

pulses1

time

time


ConclusionThe research validated six novel WECS Interface & Stabilization schemes namely:

  • Scheme 1: Dynamic voltage regulator/modulated power filter (DVR/MPF) scheme with IG

  • Scheme 2: DVR/MPF Scheme with PMSG

  • Scheme 3: Dynamic capacitor compensation (DCC) scheme with IG

  • Scheme 4: DC-link SPWM 6-pulse GTO Converter Scheme with IG

  • Scheme 5: Active/reactive Power Compensation (APC) Scheme

  • Scheme 6: Farm Electricity Scheme with PM-DC Generator

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


Conclusion – Cont’d

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


Conclusion – Cont’d Recommendation

  • The research study is now being extended to other hybrid energy schemes such as solar/small hydro/micro-gas/hydrogen generation/small NG-fired turbine/biomass/sterling cycle/fuel cell technology and integrated distributed generation.

  • New dynamic FACTS based converter topology for hybrid (wind/PV/others) renewable energy schemes.

  • Novel AI/neuro-fuzzy/soft computing based effective stabilization and control schemes.

  • Build a full laboratory micro system simulator to study new FACTS converter and controller effectiveness.

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


PUBLICATIONS6 Papers have been published/accepted/submitted

  • A. M. Sharaf, and G. Wang, “A Switched Dynamic Power Filter/Compensator Scheme for Stand Alone Wind Energy Schemes”. IEEE Canada, Canadian Conference on Electrical & Computer Engineering CCECE2004. May 2-5 2004. Dundas, Ontario, Canada. (Accepted)

  • A. M. Sharaf, and G. Wang, “Wind System Voltage and Energy Enhancement Using PWM-Switched Dynamic Capacitor Compensation”. IEEE sponsored, EPE – PEMC 04. European Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, September 2-4 2004. Riga, Latvia. (Accepted)

  • A. M. Sharaf, and G. Wang, “Stand-alone Wind Energy System Voltage and Energy Enhancement Using A Low Cost Dynamic Capacitor Compensation Scheme”, Large Engineering Systems Conference on Power Engineering, LESCOPE'04, July 28-31, 2004, Halifax, Canada. (Accepted)

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


PUBLICATIONS6 Papers have been published/accepted/submitted

  • A. M. Sharaf, and G. Wang, “Wind Energy System Voltage and Energy Utilization Enhancement Using PWM Converter Interface Scheme”, PATMOS 2004, Fourteenth International Workshop on Power and Timing Modeling, Optimization and Simulation, September 15 - 17, 2004, Isle of Santorini, Greece (Submitted)

  • A. M. Sharaf, and G. Wang, “Stand-alone Wind Energy Conversion System with Active Power Compensation Scheme”, International Journal of Energy Technology and Policy (IJETP), Special issue on Power Electronics for Distributed and Co-Generation. (Submitted)

  • A. M. Sharaf, and G. Wang, “A Novel Farm-Electricity Wind Energy Scheme using PM-DC Generator”, IEEE Transaction on Energy Conversion. (Submitted)

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


QUESTIONS PLEASE !

Thank you!

Novel Control Strategies and Interface Converters for Stand-alone WECS


Simple Wind Turbine Model (Quasi-static model)

is the tip speed ratio;

is the specific density of air (1.25);

is power conversion coefficient;

is the wind turbine rotor velocity in rpm;

A is the area swept by the blades;

R is the radius of the rotor blades;

k is equivalent coefficient of proportionality in per unit (0.745)


Typical Wind Turbine Characteristics


Induction Machine d-q Model


PWM Model


Clock

Control

signal

Control

signal

Sampled

Control

signal

Sampled

Control

signal

Triangle

wave

Triangle

wave

Compared

signal

Compared

signal

PWM

output

PWM

output

PWM Waveforms

t (s)


Asynchronous SPWM Waveforms Demonstration

Reference/control voltage

Carrier

time

shifting


GTO 5SGA 30J4502 Data Sheet


GTO 5SGA 30J4502 Data Sheet


GTO 5SGA 30J4502 Data Sheet

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