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Patrick Chiang, Hossein Kakvand, Milind Kopikare, Uma Krishnamoorthy, Paulina Kuo, Pablo Molinero-Fernández Stanford University Optical Routing Seminar 2001. Wavelength-Routing Switch Fabric. Project Goal .

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Wavelength routing switch fabric

Patrick Chiang, Hossein Kakvand, Milind Kopikare, Uma Krishnamoorthy, Paulina Kuo, Pablo Molinero-Fernández

Stanford University Optical Routing Seminar 2001

Wavelength-Routing SwitchFabric


Project goal
Project Goal Krishnamoorthy, Paulina Kuo, Pablo Molinero-Fernández

Build IP Switch Fabric with 64 by 64 ports, each port signaling at 40Gb/s*16λ=640Gb/s per port


Solution 1 electrical switch fabric

f Krishnamoorthy, Paulina Kuo, Pablo Molinero-Fernández

Solution #1—Electrical Switch Fabric

  • As data rate increases, speed becomes dominated by passive electrical model

    • Channel attenuation--dielectric loss, skin effect

    • For switch fabric cabinets far (~10m) from line cards, must use fiber for low channel loss

    • need o/e and e/o

linecard


All electrical crossbar

40Gb/s*16 Krishnamoorthy, Paulina Kuo, Pablo Molinero-Fernándezλ

Crossbar chip

All Electrical Crossbar

  • For One-Chip Electricalcrossbar solution, need

    • 64*2 ports*16λ*2=4096 20Gb/s I/O

    • Power Consumed=200mW*4096=820W

  • Power Consumed ~ Entire IP Router


Solution 2 high speed mems cross connect
Solution #2—High Speed MEMS Cross-Connect Krishnamoorthy, Paulina Kuo, Pablo Molinero-Fernández

O/E/O

MUX

Plane K

OXC

Plane 1

OXC

Passive MEMS Diffractive gratings

(or other optical element)

with at least 10ns switching speed

Pulsed Laser Source

(Picosecond)

on rotary stage

O/E/O

MEMS OXC

(1ms switching speed)

Fiber

Hide latency


Mems switch is too complex
MEMS Switch Is Too Complex Krishnamoorthy, Paulina Kuo, Pablo Molinero-Fernández

K=100 planes (i.e.1μs/10ns)

Switching speed achievable = 10 ns

Assume packet size = 64Bytes

51.2 Gb/s

(per channel)

 100 MEMS planes, each with 2*1024=2048 Mirrors

  • Issues:

  • Need 10-ns switches and 1μs MEMS

  • Difficult to align with large number of planes (K)


Different router architectures

Arbiter Krishnamoorthy, Paulina Kuo, Pablo Molinero-Fernández

Arbiter

Different Router Architectures

Electrical Bus

Crossbar Switch


Our proposal optical bus

VCSEL Array Krishnamoorthy, Paulina Kuo, Pablo Molinero-Fernández

Output

Port 1

Input

Port 1

1-N

’1

1

K

’K

N

Output

Port N

Passive

Optical Bus

Input

Port N

1-N

’1

’K

K

Our proposal: Optical Bus

  • N = 64 ports  64 internal wavelengths

  • K = 16 external WDM wavelengths  16 processing planes


Passive wavelength sorter
Passive Wavelength Sorter Krishnamoorthy, Paulina Kuo, Pablo Molinero-Fernández

Collimating lens

High Dispersion Wavelength Disperser

Output fibers

Thermally Expanded Core (TEC)

Fiber to couple into fiber better

Receiver, possibly

with spike filter

Input fibers


Advantages
Advantages Krishnamoorthy, Paulina Kuo, Pablo Molinero-Fernández

  • Fast Switching:

    • As fast as VCSEL modulation

  • Scalability:

    • Can add new planes for new external wavelengths

  • Power:

    • Passive optical components  minimal power consumption

  • Space:

    • 16 Planes, 64*2 fibers per plane


Open issues
Open Issues Krishnamoorthy, Paulina Kuo, Pablo Molinero-Fernández

  • Major Limitations:

    • Alignment of fibers and other optical elements.

    • VCSEL arrays with 64 different wavelengths

    • 64-wavelength sorter (dispersion element)

    • Does not scale with higher port count

    • Complexity of the arbiter

  • Cost factor:

    • Alignment of the fibers at the coupler.


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