syntax 9 agrammatism day 38 nov 25 2013
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syntax 9 Agrammatism DAY 38 – Nov 25, 2013. Brain & Language LING 4110-4890-5110-7960 NSCI 4110-4891-6110 Harry Howard Tulane University. Course organization. The syllabus, these slides and my recordings are available at http://www.tulane.edu/~howard/LING4110/ .

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syntax 9 agrammatism day 38 nov 25 2013

syntax 9AgrammatismDAY 38 – Nov 25, 2013

Brain & Language

LING 4110-4890-5110-7960

NSCI 4110-4891-6110

Harry Howard

Tulane University

course organization
Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane UniversityCourse organization
  • The syllabus, these slides and my recordings are available at http://www.tulane.edu/~howard/LING4110/.
  • If you want to learn more about EEG and neurolinguistics, you are welcome to participate in my lab. This is also a good way to get started on an honor\'s thesis.
  • The grades are posted to Blackboard.
modular vs interactive processing table 13 1 adapted from frisch et al 2004
Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane UniversityModular vs. interactive processingTable 13.1. adapted from Frisch et al. (2004)

Modular: an error found early could turn off additional processing.

Interactive: errors should add up.

sentence comprehension and syntactic parsing
Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane UniversitySentence comprehension and syntactic parsing

Ingram I, §13 On-line processing, working memory and modularity

what is this
Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane UniversityWhat is this?

`Twasbrillig, and the slithytoves

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe:

All mimsy were the borogoves,

And the momerathsoutgrabe.

jabberwocky sentences table 13 2 adapted from hahne jescheniak 2001
Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane UniversityJabberwocky sentencesTable 13.2, adapted from Hahne & Jescheniak (2001)

Modular: an error found early could turn off additional processing.

Interactive: errors should add up.

d eep vs surface anaphora
Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane UniversityDeep vs. surface anaphora
  • What is anaphora?
    • The ability of one expression to refer to another.
  • Surface anaphora
    • The ring that John gave to Mary was made of gold.
    • The ring that John gave __ to Mary was made of gold.
    • How do we know what the gap/trace after gave refers to?
    • Its reference is resolved by syntax.
  • Deep anaphora
    • He gave a ring to her.
    • How do we know what he or she refers to?
    • Their reference is resolved by semantics/pragmatics, which is somehow ‘deeper’ than syntax.
    • In particular, pragmatics may consult a model of the discourse, that is, a way of keeping track of what is being/has been talked about.
    • Lisa spoke to Bill, and Lisa spoke to John.
differences in erps between kinds of anaphora see examples p 292 translated from german fig 13 5
Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane UniversityDifferences in ERPs between kinds of anaphoraSee examples p. 292, translated from German; Fig. 13.5
  • Surface/ellipsis
  • Werner gave Lisa a ring and Joseph …Lisa a necklace.
  • Deep/discourse model
  • Werner gave Lisa a ring and Joseph gave Lisaa necklace.
agrammatism revisited
Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane UniversityAgrammatism revisited

Ingram IV, §14 On-line processing, working memory and modularity

a test zurif et al 1972
Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane UniversityA testZurif et al. (1972)
  • Which pair of words (A or B) goes best together?
    • A | B
    • the – baby | the – cries
    • the – baby | baby – cries
    • the – cries | baby – cries
  • These pairwise comparisons can be summarized in a tree structure called a dendrogram.
dendrograms for other sentences fig 14 2
Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane UniversityDendrograms for other sentencesFig. 14.2

control

aphasia

the dog chases a cat

the dog chases a cat

the man was hurt

the man was hurt

c onclusions
Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane UniversityConclusions
  • What shall we conclude?
    • Agrammatic aphasics can process content words,
    • but not grammatical or function words.
next time
Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane UniversityNEXT TIME

P11

Part IV. Discourse §15, Discourse processing

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