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Pedestrian Safety Enforcement: The Maryland Experience. Pro Walk/Pro Bike September 8, 2004. George Branyan Pedestrian & Special Programs Coordinator SHA-MHSO. Maryland Pedestrian Crash Data (5-year average, 1999-2003). 109 fatalities (119 in 2003) 17% of total traffic fatalities

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Pedestrian safety enforcement the maryland experience

Pedestrian Safety Enforcement:The Maryland Experience

Pro Walk/Pro Bike September 8, 2004

George Branyan

Pedestrian & Special Programs Coordinator

SHA-MHSO


Maryland pedestrian crash data 5 year average 1999 2003
Maryland Pedestrian Crash Data (5-year average, 1999-2003)

  • 109 fatalities (119 in 2003)

  • 17% of total traffic fatalities

  • MD ranks 13th for fatalities in the US (per population)

  • 2887 injuries

  • 84% of all crashes and 73% of fatal crashes occur in the 5 most populous jurisdictions

  • 6% of crashes involve the elderly, but they account for 16% of all fatal crashes


Maryland pedestrian crash data 5 year average 1999 20031
Maryland Pedestrian Crash Data (5-year average, 1999-2003)

  • 53% of all crashes and 70% of fatal crashes occur from 4 pm to 4 am

  • 28% of fatalities involve alcohol on the part of the pedestrian and 8% on the part of the driver, but…

  • 57% of fatalities occur on US/State Roads

  • 55% of all crashes and 72% of fatalities occur not in a crosswalk

  • 39% of all crashes and 54% of fatalities occur not at an intersection



Real world pedestrian problems
Real-World Pedestrian Problems

  • Pedestrians cross where they cross for a REASON

  • Pedestrians often cross mid-block because intersections seem threatening


Challenging suburban environments
Challenging Suburban Environments

Many suburban roads in the state have high pedestrian volumes, high vehicle speeds, and long distances between signalized intersections.

MD 193 between MD 650 & MD 212

MD 650 at Langley Park


What works in pedestrian safety enforcement
What Works in Pedestrian Safety Enforcement?

  • The Crosswalk must have meaning for both drivers and pedestrians.

  • Target the DRIVER as well as the pedestrian.

    • Seattle PD gave 500,000 jaywalking tickets and found few safety gains, but dramatic public resentment.

    • Success achieved when strategy changed to focus on driver as well as pedestrian behavior and roadway/crosswalk design.


Pedestrian enforcement issues
Pedestrian Enforcement Issues

1990 NHTSA report on pedestrian enforcement found many reasons given by police for not enforcing pedestrian safety laws:

  • Peer Pressure – “Ped violations aren’t real crimes, it’s not real police work.”

  • Social Pressure – Questions from the public, “Why aren’t you out catching robbers and murderers?”

  • Police Administration – “My Chief (Lt. , Sgt., etc.) doesn’t want me to do it.”

  • Courts – “My calendar is crammed and you bring me this petty matter?”

  • Fines – Fines may be too high or too low. May require a “must appear.”


Importance of the third e enforcement
Importance of the third “E” Enforcement

The Need for Police Enforcement:

  • Un-enforced laws will be ignored

  • Enforcement gives credibility to engineering and education interventions

  • Increases driver awareness

  • Increases compliance and saves lives

  • Enhances “walkability” of communities


Impact of crosswalk enforcement
Impact of Crosswalk Enforcement

  • Washington State conducted a before-during-after multiple comparison study of targeted crosswalk enforcement (2003).


Maryland pedestrian safety enforcement initiative
Maryland Pedestrian Safety Enforcement Initiative

  • Multi-Jurisdictional: Overtime highway safety grant funds in 10 jurisdictions ($200,000)

  • Created in 2002

  • Training workshops and recognition events

  • Educational materials, law card, warning tickets

  • Encourage publicity about enforcement – it’s the best education

  • Balanced enforcement

Dan Burden & John Moffat


Enforcement resources
Enforcement Resources

  • Enforcement Program Manual

    • How to set up crosswalk and intersection enforcement

    • How to effectively enforce laws on pedestrians

    • Resources & training materials

    • Contact the “experts” section


Enforcement resources1
Enforcement Resources

  • Driver/Ped Warning Ticket

  • Crosswalk Law Card



Md pedestrian safety enforcement initiative

Greenbelt City

MD Pedestrian Safety Enforcement Initiative

Baltimore City


Md pedestrian safety enforcement initiative1
MD Pedestrian Safety Enforcement Initiative

Pedestrian refuge island & mid-block crosswalk constructed by MD State Highway Administration

Baltimore County


Educating pedestrians
Educating Pedestrians

  • Education of pedestrians with selective, highly publicized education/enforcement.

C-SAFE Initiative – International Corridor, suburban Washington


MD Pedestrian Safety Enforcement Program Results, 2004

13 police departments participating

Over 40 crosswalk enforcement events

Nearly 750 citations and 536 warnings given to drivers at crosswalk enforcement events

258 warnings and 748 educational brochures given to pedestrians

Over 2000 speeding citations

19 arrests, including 7 unlicensed drivers, 1 stolen car, 1 DUI arrest


Md pedestrian safety enforcement initiative2
MD Pedestrian Safety Enforcement Initiative

  • Publicity about enforcement

Montgomery County


Md pedestrian safety enforcement initiative3
MD Pedestrian Safety Enforcement Initiative

  • Publicity about enforcement


Enforcement-related Education Efforts

STREET SMART Pedestrian Safety Media Campaign

  • Conducted since 2002

  • Washington and Baltimore metro areas

  • Funded by highway safety grant funds (DC, MD, VA)

  • Targets pedestrians & drivers

  • English and Spanish

  • 4 week campaigns

  • Survey evaluation


Enforcement-related Education Efforts

Targeting Pedestrians

Interior Bus Card

Transit shelter Poster

Tip Card


Enforcement-related Education Efforts

Targeting Drivers

Radio PSA

Bus Backs

Tip Card



Awareness of enforcement 2002
Awareness of Enforcement, 2002

  • Comparison of pre and post measurement indicates that unaided awareness of police efforts to crack down on drivers who do not yield to pedestrians increased 4 percentage points.


Awareness of enforcement 2004
Awareness of Enforcement, 2004

  • 2004 Baltimore campaign did not generate an increase in unaided awareness of police efforts to crack down on drivers who do not yield to pedestrians but it was higher than in DC.


Conclusions recommendations
Conclusions-Recommendations

  • Get your state highway safety office to create a pedestrian safety enforcement program!

  • Enlist partners that can help increase publicity about enforcement, e.g. county gov’ts, police PIOs, sympathetic reporters, etc.

  • Good training is important

  • Recognition is a must with cops!

  • Enlist partners that can help with media campaigns, such as MPOs.

  • Remove statutory obstacles & educate the judiciary


Pedestrian enforcement training resources
Pedestrian Enforcement Training Resources

  • Walkable Communities, Inc. (www.walkable.org)

    • John Moffat, former director of the Washington Traffic Safety Commission. ([email protected])

    • Dan Burden, nationally recognized expert in pedestrian access and safety. ([email protected])

  • Center for Education & Research in Safety (www.cers-safety.com)

    • Ron Van Houten, Ph.D

    • J. E. Louis Malenfant, Ph.D


Please contact me for more information

George Branyan

Pedestrian and Special Programs Coordinator

Maryland Highway Safety Office

410 582-5578

[email protected]

Please contact me for more information


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