Making Sure Messages Reduce Stigma and do not Stigmatize
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Making Sure Messages Reduce Stigma and do not Stigmatize Anne Stangl, PhD SARDM Grantees Media Training: World Bank September 4, 2008. Presentation Overview. Unintended consequences of HIV-media messaging How media messages can stigmatize Stigma-reduction messaging fundamentals

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Making Sure Messages Reduce Stigma and do not Stigmatize Anne Stangl, PhDSARDM Grantees Media Training: World BankSeptember 4, 2008


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Presentation Overview

  • Unintended consequences of HIV-media messaging

  • How media messages can stigmatize

  • Stigma-reduction messaging fundamentals

  • Examples & Discussion

  • Questions and Answers


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“Because reporting on HIV and AIDS ultimately deals with matters of life and death, and because many people will form their understanding of HIV and AIDS through the media, the story must be approached with clarity, precision, and sensitivity”.

Reporting Manual on HIV/AIDS

Kaiser Family Foundation

http://www.kff.org/hivaids/7124-02.cfm


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Unintended Consequences of matters of life and death, and because many people will form their understanding of HIV and AIDS through the media, the story must be approached with clarity, precision, and sensitivity”.HIV-related Media Messaging


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The Media and Stigma matters of life and death, and because many people will form their understanding of HIV and AIDS through the media, the story must be approached with clarity, precision, and sensitivity”.

  • Language can maintain and reinforce stigma and discrimination

  • Photographs, illustrations and videos can propagate stereotypical images/ideas that reinforce stigma

  • Providing general HIV awareness without also providing stigma-specific messages can increase stigma


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Stigmatizing Language matters of life and death, and because many people will form their understanding of HIV and AIDS through the media, the story must be approached with clarity, precision, and sensitivity”.


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Incorrect Terminology* matters of life and death, and because many people will form their understanding of HIV and AIDS through the media, the story must be approached with clarity, precision, and sensitivity”.

*UNAIDS Preferred Language for Reporting on HIV and AIDS


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Example 1 matters of life and death, and because many people will form their understanding of HIV and AIDS through the media, the story must be approached with clarity, precision, and sensitivity”.

Sexual promiscuity is the primary cause of the spread of HIV/AIDS

Unprotected sexual intercourse with an HIV-infected person is the primary cause of the spread of HIV


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Example 2 matters of life and death, and because many people will form their understanding of HIV and AIDS through the media, the story must be approached with clarity, precision, and sensitivity”.

To this date there is no adequate treatment for AIDS

To this date, there is no cure for HIV infection.


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Insensitive Language* matters of life and death, and because many people will form their understanding of HIV and AIDS through the media, the story must be approached with clarity, precision, and sensitivity”.

*UNAIDS Preferred Language for Reporting on HIV and AIDS


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Insensitive Language* matters of life and death, and because many people will form their understanding of HIV and AIDS through the media, the story must be approached with clarity, precision, and sensitivity”.(cont’d)

*UNAIDS Preferred Language for Reporting on HIV and AIDS


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Example 3: Article from India matters of life and death, and because many people will form their understanding of HIV and AIDS through the media, the story must be approached with clarity, precision, and sensitivity”.

  • “The objective of the game show is to reduce stigma and discrimination towards the people living with HIV/AIDS through awareness to the masses...It aims to reduce the increasing infection of people of the south east Asia by the dreaded HIV/AIDS…”


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Stigmatizing Images matters of life and death, and because many people will form their understanding of HIV and AIDS through the media, the story must be approached with clarity, precision, and sensitivity”.


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“I also watch the TV, which broadcasts programs…showing many [persons with HIV]. They look disgusting. Only getting [HIV] such as shown on TV is frightening, but if you are [HIV] positive and healthy like me, there is nothing to be afraid of. They said that persons who get [HIV] should be sent to something like a concentration camp to live together, they should not[be] let outside.” (Woman living with HIV, Viet Nam)


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Stigmatizing Posters from Viet Nam many [persons with HIV]. They look disgusting. Only getting [HIV] such as shown on TV is frightening, but if you are [HIV] positive and healthy like me, there is nothing to be afraid of. They said that persons who get [HIV] should be sent to something like a concentration camp to live together, they should not

Drug-AIDS, scourge of the century

Stay away from drugs


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Examples: Public Service Announcements many [persons with HIV]. They look disgusting. Only getting [HIV] such as shown on TV is frightening, but if you are [HIV] positive and healthy like me, there is nothing to be afraid of. They said that persons who get [HIV] should be sent to something like a concentration camp to live together, they should not

  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/trust/whatwedo/where/asia/india/2008/04/080407_india_hiv_project_millionaire_psa_video.shtml

  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/trust/whatwedo/where/asia/cambodia/2008/04/080407_cambodia_hivaids_mch_project_srey_pov_video.shtml


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Lack of Stigma-specific Messaging many [persons with HIV]. They look disgusting. Only getting [HIV] such as shown on TV is frightening, but if you are [HIV] positive and healthy like me, there is nothing to be afraid of. They said that persons who get [HIV] should be sent to something like a concentration camp to live together, they should not


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Example: Reducing HIV Stigma among Chinese Americans many [persons with HIV]. They look disgusting. Only getting [HIV] such as shown on TV is frightening, but if you are [HIV] positive and healthy like me, there is nothing to be afraid of. They said that persons who get [HIV] should be sent to something like a concentration camp to live together, they should not

  • Messages were intended to increase awareness about HIV in general and enhance communication about HIV

  • No stigma specific messages developed

  • HIV awareness messages ended up increasing shame and blame


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Stigma Reduction Messaging Fundamentals many [persons with HIV]. They look disgusting. Only getting [HIV] such as shown on TV is frightening, but if you are [HIV] positive and healthy like me, there is nothing to be afraid of. They said that persons who get [HIV] should be sent to something like a concentration camp to live together, they should not


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Address the Causes of Stigma many [persons with HIV]. They look disgusting. Only getting [HIV] such as shown on TV is frightening, but if you are [HIV] positive and healthy like me, there is nothing to be afraid of. They said that persons who get [HIV] should be sent to something like a concentration camp to live together, they should not

  • Three immediately “actionable” causes

    • Awareness & knowledge of stigma

    • Fear of casual contact

    • Values linking People Living with HIV with behaviors considered improper or immoral

  • Best to address all 3 causes, instead of focusing on a single cause


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Pair HIV Knowledge with Stigma-Specific Messages many [persons with HIV]. They look disgusting. Only getting [HIV] such as shown on TV is frightening, but if you are [HIV] positive and healthy like me, there is nothing to be afraid of. They said that persons who get [HIV] should be sent to something like a concentration camp to live together, they should not

  • Providing HIV knowledge alone can lead to fear

  • Discuss the facts about how HIV can and cannot be transmitted

  • Dispel local myths and fears about HIV transmission

  • Include stigma-specific messages


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Summary many [persons with HIV]. They look disgusting. Only getting [HIV] such as shown on TV is frightening, but if you are [HIV] positive and healthy like me, there is nothing to be afraid of. They said that persons who get [HIV] should be sent to something like a concentration camp to live together, they should not

  • Use correct terminology

  • Use non-stigmatizing language and images

  • Portray people with HIV living positively, not depressed or ostracized


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Summary (cont.) many [persons with HIV]. They look disgusting. Only getting [HIV] such as shown on TV is frightening, but if you are [HIV] positive and healthy like me, there is nothing to be afraid of. They said that persons who get [HIV] should be sent to something like a concentration camp to live together, they should not

  • Address all 3 causes of stigma

  • Address fears that are specific to your context

  • Include stigma-specific messages in along with HIV awareness messages


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Thank you! many [persons with HIV]. They look disgusting. Only getting [HIV] such as shown on TV is frightening, but if you are [HIV] positive and healthy like me, there is nothing to be afraid of. They said that persons who get [HIV] should be sent to something like a concentration camp to live together, they should not


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