Foundations of Individual and Group Behavior

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Foundations of Individual and Group Behavior

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1. ? 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Foundations of Individual and Group Behavior

2. ? 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8?2 Organizational Behavior (OB) Defined: The study of the actions of people at work The Focus of OB Individual behaviors Personality, perception, learning, and motivation Group behaviors Norms, roles, team-and conflict The Goals of OB To explain behavior To predict behavior Toward Explaining and Predicting Behavior Although it is concerned with the subject of behavior, organizational behavior (OB) is concerned specifically with the actions of people at work. Organizational behavior focuses primarily on two major areas: individual and group behaviors. This chapter provides a foundation for understanding individual and group behavior. The goals of OB are to explain and predict behavior. The following information will reveal how understanding the attitudes, personalities, and learning preferences of employees can help managers to predict and explain employee productivity, absence and turnover rates, and job satisfactionAlthough it is concerned with the subject of behavior, organizational behavior (OB) is concerned specifically with the actions of people at work. Organizational behavior focuses primarily on two major areas: individual and group behaviors. This chapter provides a foundation for understanding individual and group behavior. The goals of OB are to explain and predict behavior. The following information will reveal how understanding the attitudes, personalities, and learning preferences of employees can help managers to predict and explain employee productivity, absence and turnover rates, and job satisfaction

3. ? 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8?3 Behaviors of Interest to OB Employee Productivity The efficiency and effectiveness of employees Absenteeism The election by employees to attend work Turnover The exit of an employee from an organization Organizational Citizenship Employee behaviors that promote the welfare of the organization Strong evidence suggests that committed, satisfied employees turnover less and have lower absenteeism rates. Studies from the 1930s concluded that happy workers are productive workers. As a result, increasing job satisfaction by creating a ?caring? environment was important to managers during the 1930s through the 1950s. However, this approach was questioned as researchers perceived that managers would get better results by directing their attention primarily to what would help workers become more productive. They asserted that satisfaction on the job would be increased as more productive workers acquired feelings of accomplishment, increased pay, promotions, and other rewards. Research in the 1990s provided new support for the original premise that happy workers are productive workers. Based on data gathered for entire organizations, as opposed to individuals, this research found that organizations with satisfied employees were more effective than organizations that had less-satisfied employees. Strong evidence suggests that committed, satisfied employees turnover less and have lower absenteeism rates. Studies from the 1930s concluded that happy workers are productive workers. As a result, increasing job satisfaction by creating a ?caring? environment was important to managers during the 1930s through the 1950s. However, this approach was questioned as researchers perceived that managers would get better results by directing their attention primarily to what would help workers become more productive. They asserted that satisfaction on the job would be increased as more productive workers acquired feelings of accomplishment, increased pay, promotions, and other rewards. Research in the 1990s provided new support for the original premise that happy workers are productive workers. Based on data gathered for entire organizations, as opposed to individuals, this research found that organizations with satisfied employees were more effective than organizations that had less-satisfied employees.

4. ? 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8?4 Understanding Employees Attitudes Valuative statements concerning objects, people, or events Cognitive component The beliefs, opinions, knowledge, and information held by a person Affective component The emotional, or feeling, segment of an attitude Behavioral component An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something Attitudes are value statements, either favorable or unfavorable, concerning objects, people, or events. Attitudes are made up of three components: cognition, affect, and behavior. The cognitive component of an attitude is made up of the beliefs, opinions, knowledge, and information held by a person. The affective component of an attitude is the emotional (feeling) segment of an attitude. The behavioral component of an attitude refers to an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. Attitudes are value statements, either favorable or unfavorable, concerning objects, people, or events. Attitudes are made up of three components: cognition, affect, and behavior. The cognitive component of an attitude is made up of the beliefs, opinions, knowledge, and information held by a person. The affective component of an attitude is the emotional (feeling) segment of an attitude. The behavioral component of an attitude refers to an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.

5. ? 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8?5 Job-Related Attitudes Job Satisfaction An employee?s general attitude toward his or her job. Job Involvement The degree to which an employee identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her job performance important for self-worth. Organizational Commitment An employee?s orientation toward the organization in terms of his or her loyalty to, identification with, and involvement in the organization. Managers are primarily interested in the following job-related attitudes: job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment. Job satisfaction is an employee?s general attitude toward his or her job. Job involvement is the degree to which an employee identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers job performance important to his or her self-worth. Organizational commitment represents an employee?s loyalty to, identification with, and involvement in the organization. Managers are primarily interested in the following job-related attitudes: job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment. Job satisfaction is an employee?s general attitude toward his or her job. Job involvement is the degree to which an employee identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers job performance important to his or her self-worth. Organizational commitment represents an employee?s loyalty to, identification with, and involvement in the organization.

6. ? 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8?6 Cognitive Dissonance Theory Cognitive Dissonance Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes Inconsistency is uncomfortable and individuals will seek a stable state with a minimum of dissonance. Desire to reduce dissonance is determined by: The importance of the elements creating the dissonance. The degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements. The rewards that may be involved. Generally, people seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and behaviors. They try to reconcile divergent attitudes and align their attitudes and behaviors so they appear to be rational and consistent. When inconsistencies exist, they will try to correct them either by altering the attitudes and behaviors or by rationalizing the discrepancies. Leon Festinger proposed the theory of cognitive dissonance to explain the relationship between attitudes and behavior. Cognitive dissonance refers to any incompatibility that individuals perceive between their attitudes or between their behavior and attitudes. That inconsistency is uncomfortable, so individuals try to minimize the dissonance. The desire to reduce dissonance is contingent upon the importance of the elements that create the dissonance, the degree of influence that people believe they have over the elements, and the rewards involved in the dissonance. Just because individuals experience dissonance, therefore, they will not necessarily seek consistency by resolving the dissonance. Dissonance can be managed. Sometimes, employees are required to perform activities that are inconsistent or at odds with their attitudes. In such cases, managers should remember that pressure to reduce dissonance can be lessened (1) if the employee thinks that the dissonance is externally imposed and uncontrollable and (2) if the rewards are significant enough to offset the dissonance. Generally, people seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and behaviors. They try to reconcile divergent attitudes and align their attitudes and behaviors so they appear to be rational and consistent. When inconsistencies exist, they will try to correct them either by altering the attitudes and behaviors or by rationalizing the discrepancies. Leon Festinger proposed the theory of cognitive dissonance to explain the relationship between attitudes and behavior. Cognitive dissonance refers to any incompatibility that individuals perceive between their attitudes or between their behavior and attitudes. That inconsistency is uncomfortable, so individuals try to minimize the dissonance. The desire to reduce dissonance is contingent upon the importance of the elements that create the dissonance, the degree of influence that people believe they have over the elements, and the rewards involved in the dissonance. Just because individuals experience dissonance, therefore, they will not necessarily seek consistency by resolving the dissonance. Dissonance can be managed. Sometimes, employees are required to perform activities that are inconsistent or at odds with their attitudes. In such cases, managers should remember that pressure to reduce dissonance can be lessened (1) if the employee thinks that the dissonance is externally imposed and uncontrollable and (2) if the rewards are significant enough to offset the dissonance.

7. ? 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8?7 Fostering Positive Job Attitudes Managers can reduce dissonance by: Creating the perception that the source of the dissonance is externally imposed and uncontrollable. Increasing employee rewards for engaging in the behaviors related to the dissonance. Satisfied workers are not necessarily more productive workers. Assisting employees in successful performance of their jobs will increase their desired outcomes and lead to increased job satisfaction?focusing on productivity as a means rather than an ends. Dissonance can be managed. Sometimes, employees are required to perform activities that are inconsistent or at odds with their attitudes. In such cases, managers should remember that pressure to reduce dissonance can be lessened (1) if the employee thinks that the dissonance is externally imposed and uncontrollable and (2) if the rewards are significant enough to offset the dissonanceDissonance can be managed. Sometimes, employees are required to perform activities that are inconsistent or at odds with their attitudes. In such cases, managers should remember that pressure to reduce dissonance can be lessened (1) if the employee thinks that the dissonance is externally imposed and uncontrollable and (2) if the rewards are significant enough to offset the dissonance

8. ? 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8?8 Personality and Behavior Personality Is the combination of the psychological traits that characterize that person. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI?) A method of identifying personality types uses four dimensions of personality to identify 16 different personality types. Big Five Model Five-factor model of personality that includes extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience. An individual?s personality is the combination of the psychological traits that we use to classify that person: for example, as being a quiet, loud, aggressive, ambitious, or persistent individual. When characteristics, such as shyness, aggressiveness, submissiveness, laziness, ambitiousness, loyalty, and timidity, are exhibited consistently in a large number of situations, we call them personality traits. Two methods focus specifically on which traits would lead to identifying sources of one?s personality: the Meyers-Briggs Type indicator and the five-factor model of personality. An individual?s personality is the combination of the psychological traits that we use to classify that person: for example, as being a quiet, loud, aggressive, ambitious, or persistent individual. When characteristics, such as shyness, aggressiveness, submissiveness, laziness, ambitiousness, loyalty, and timidity, are exhibited consistently in a large number of situations, we call them personality traits. Two methods focus specifically on which traits would lead to identifying sources of one?s personality: the Meyers-Briggs Type indicator and the five-factor model of personality.

9. ? 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8?9 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Extroversion versus Introversion (EI) An individual?s orientation toward the inner world of ideas (I) or the external world of the environment (E). Sensing versus Intuitive (SN) An individual?s reliance on information gathered from the external world (S) or from the world of ideas (N). Thinking versus Feeling (TF) One?s preference for evaluating information in an analytical manner (T) or on the basis of values and beliefs (F). Judging versus Perceiving (JP). Reflects an attitude toward the external world that is either task completion oriented (J) or information seeking (P). The Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a 100 question personality test that asks people to select how they usually feel or act in particular situations. According to their answers, they are classified as: Extroverted or introverted (E or I) Sensing or intuitive (S or N), ?go to next slide The Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a 100 question personality test that asks people to select how they usually feel or act in particular situations. According to their answers, they are classified as: Extroverted or introverted (E or I) Sensing or intuitive (S or N), ?go to next slide

10. ? 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8?10 The Big Five Model of Personality The Big Five model of personality offers a comprehensive framework for identifying personality dimensions. Extroversion captures one?s comfort level with relationships. Extroverts tend to maintain a large number of relationships. Introverts tend to be reserved and have fewer relationships. Agreeableness refers to a person?s propensity to defer to others. People high in this dimension value harmony more than having their own way. People low in this dimension focus on their own needs more than on the needs of others. Conscientiousness refers to the number of goals on which a person focuses. Those high in this dimension pursue fewer goals and tend to be responsible, persistent, and achievement-oriented. Those low in this dimension tend to be more easily distracted, less focused, and more hedonistic. Emotional-stability refers a person?s ability to withstand stress. People high on this dimension tend to be calm, enthusiastic, and secure. Those low in this dimension tend to be anxious, nervous, and insecure. Openness to experience refers to one?s range of interests. Those high in this dimension are fascinated by imaginative, creative, and intellectual. Those low in this dimension tend to be more conventional and prefer the familiar.The Big Five model of personality offers a comprehensive framework for identifying personality dimensions. Extroversion captures one?s comfort level with relationships. Extroverts tend to maintain a large number of relationships. Introverts tend to be reserved and have fewer relationships. Agreeableness refers to a person?s propensity to defer to others. People high in this dimension value harmony more than having their own way. People low in this dimension focus on their own needs more than on the needs of others. Conscientiousness refers to the number of goals on which a person focuses. Those high in this dimension pursue fewer goals and tend to be responsible, persistent, and achievement-oriented. Those low in this dimension tend to be more easily distracted, less focused, and more hedonistic. Emotional-stability refers a person?s ability to withstand stress. People high on this dimension tend to be calm, enthusiastic, and secure. Those low in this dimension tend to be anxious, nervous, and insecure. Openness to experience refers to one?s range of interests. Those high in this dimension are fascinated by imaginative, creative, and intellectual. Those low in this dimension tend to be more conventional and prefer the familiar.

11. ? 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8?11 What Is Emotional Intelligence (EI)? Emotional Intelligence (EI) An assortment of noncognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a person?s ability to cope with environmental demands and pressures. Dimensions of EI Self-awareness own feelings Self-management of own emotions Self-motivation in face of setbacks Empathy for others? feelings Social skills to handle others? emotions Emotional intelligence (EI) is an assortment of skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a person?s ability to cope with environmental demands and pressures. Studies suggest that EI may play an important role in job performance. It is composed of five dimensions:Emotional intelligence (EI) is an assortment of skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a person?s ability to cope with environmental demands and pressures. Studies suggest that EI may play an important role in job performance. It is composed of five dimensions:

12. ? 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8?12 Personality Traits And Work-related Behaviors Locus of Control A personality attribute that measures the degree to which people believe that they are masters of their own fate. Machiavellianism (?Mach?) A measure of the degree to which people are pragmatic, maintain emotional distance, and believe that ends can justify means. Locus of Control ? People who believe that they are masters of their own fates are internals, whereas, those who believe that outside forces control their lives are called externals. Internals search actively for information before making decisions, are achievement driven, and want to control their environment. So, internals do well on jobs that require complex information processing, initiative, and independent action. Externals are more compliant, more willing to follow directions; so, they do well in structured, routine jobs. Machiavellianism ? High-Machs are pragmatic, emotionally distant, and believe that ends can justify means. They want to win and are adroit persuaders. High-Machs flourish (1) when interacting with others directly rather than indirectly; (2) when situations are relatively free of rules and regulations and require improvisation; and (3) when emotional details irrelevant to winning distract low-Machs. Locus of Control ? People who believe that they are masters of their own fates are internals, whereas, those who believe that outside forces control their lives are called externals. Internals search actively for information before making decisions, are achievement driven, and want to control their environment. So, internals do well on jobs that require complex information processing, initiative, and independent action. Externals are more compliant, more willing to follow directions; so, they do well in structured, routine jobs. Machiavellianism ? High-Machs are pragmatic, emotionally distant, and believe that ends can justify means. They want to win and are adroit persuaders. High-Machs flourish (1) when interacting with others directly rather than indirectly; (2) when situations are relatively free of rules and regulations and require improvisation; and (3) when emotional details irrelevant to winning distract low-Machs.

13. ? 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8?13 Personality Traits And Work-related Behaviors (cont?d) Self-Esteem (SE) An individual?s degree of life dislike for him- or herself Self-Monitoring A measure of an individual?s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors Propensity for Risk Taking The willingness to take chances?a preference to assume or avoid risk Self-Esteem ? The degree to which people either like or dislike themselves, self-esteem is directly related to expectations of success and on-the-job satisfaction. High-SEs believe that they have what it takes to succeed; so, they take more risks in job selection. Low-SEs are more susceptible to external influence; so, they are more likely to seek the approval of others and to conform to the beliefs and behaviors of those they respect. Self-Monitoring ? Highly sensitive to external cues, individuals high in self-monitoring can adjust their behavior according to external, situational factors. Their mercurial talents allow them to present public personae that are much different from their private personalities. However, low self-monitors cannot disguise themselves; so, ?what you see is what you get.? High self-monitors can play multiple, even contradictory roles. Risk Taking Propensity? Generally, managers are risk-averse. However, individual risk-taking propensities affect how much information managers require and how long it takes them to make decisions. Therefore, recognizing these differences and aligning risk-taking propensity with specific job demands can make sense. Self-Esteem ? The degree to which people either like or dislike themselves, self-esteem is directly related to expectations of success and on-the-job satisfaction. High-SEs believe that they have what it takes to succeed; so, they take more risks in job selection. Low-SEs are more susceptible to external influence; so, they are more likely to seek the approval of others and to conform to the beliefs and behaviors of those they respect. Self-Monitoring ? Highly sensitive to external cues, individuals high in self-monitoring can adjust their behavior according to external, situational factors. Their mercurial talents allow them to present public personae that are much different from their private personalities. However, low self-monitors cannot disguise themselves; so, ?what you see is what you get.? High self-monitors can play multiple, even contradictory roles. Risk Taking Propensity? Generally, managers are risk-averse. However, individual risk-taking propensities affect how much information managers require and how long it takes them to make decisions. Therefore, recognizing these differences and aligning risk-taking propensity with specific job demands can make sense.

14. ? 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8?14 Key Points of Holland?s Model There do appear to be intrinsic differences in personality among individuals. There are different types of jobs. People in job environments congruent with their personality types should be more satisfied and less likely to resign voluntarily than people in incongruent jobs. The bottom line is (according to Holland) that satisfaction is highest and turnover is lowest when personality and occupation are in agreement. For instance, a realistic person in a realistic job is in a more congruent situation than a realistic person in an investigative job. A realistic person in a social job is the most incongruent situation possible. The bottom line is (according to Holland) that satisfaction is highest and turnover is lowest when personality and occupation are in agreement. For instance, a realistic person in a realistic job is in a more congruent situation than a realistic person in an investigative job. A realistic person in a social job is the most incongruent situation possible.

15. ? 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8?15 Personality Characteristics of Entrepreneurs Proactive Personality High level of motivation Internal locus of control Need for autonomy Abundance of self-confidence Self-esteem High energy levels Persistence Moderate risk taker Problem solver People act on their perceptions, not on reality. Because these perceptions can be distorted, people often misinterpret events and activities. When managers want to explain or predict someone?s behavior, they must understand that person?s perception of the world: how he or she organizes and interprets sensory impressions to give meaning to his or her environment. People act on their perceptions, not on reality. Because these perceptions can be distorted, people often misinterpret events and activities. When managers want to explain or predict someone?s behavior, they must understand that person?s perception of the world: how he or she organizes and interprets sensory impressions to give meaning to his or her environment.

16. ? 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8?16 Perception Perception A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. People act on their perceptions, not on reality. Because these perceptions can be distorted, people often misinterpret events and activities. When managers want to explain or predict someone?s behavior, they must understand that person?s perception of the world: how he or she organizes and interprets sensory impressions to give meaning to his or her environment.People act on their perceptions, not on reality. Because these perceptions can be distorted, people often misinterpret events and activities. When managers want to explain or predict someone?s behavior, they must understand that person?s perception of the world: how he or she organizes and interprets sensory impressions to give meaning to his or her environment.

17. ? 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8?17 Influences on Perception Personal Characteristics Attitudes Personality Motives Interests Past experiences Expectations Target Characteristics Relationship of a target to its background Closeness and/or similarity to other things The context in object is seen Other situational factors. Several factors that either shape or distort perception can reside in the perceiver, in the object (target) being perceived, or in the context in which the perception is made. When an individual attempts to interpret a target, the following characteristics will heavily influence his or her perception: attitudes, personality, motives, interests, past experiences, and expectations. Additional factors that influence perception: characteristics of the target and its relationship to its background; and contextual elements, such as time, location, light, or heat. Several factors that either shape or distort perception can reside in the perceiver, in the object (target) being perceived, or in the context in which the perception is made. When an individual attempts to interpret a target, the following characteristics will heavily influence his or her perception: attitudes, personality, motives, interests, past experiences, and expectations. Additional factors that influence perception: characteristics of the target and its relationship to its background; and contextual elements, such as time, location, light, or heat.

18. ? 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8?18 How Do Managers Judge Employees? Attribution Theory A theory based on the premise that we judge people differently depending on the meaning we attribute to a given behavior. Internally caused behavior is believed to be under the control of the individual. Externally caused behavior results from outside causes; that is, the person is seen as having been forced into the behavior by the situation. When we observe people, we attempt to develop explanations for their behavior. Our perceptions and judgments will be influenced by the assumptions we make about the person?s internal state. Attribution theory asserts that when we observe behavior, we classify it as either internally or externally motivated. We believe that internally caused behaviors are under an individual?s control; externally caused behaviors are motivated by outside forces. When we observe people, we attempt to develop explanations for their behavior. Our perceptions and judgments will be influenced by the assumptions we make about the person?s internal state. Attribution theory asserts that when we observe behavior, we classify it as either internally or externally motivated. We believe that internally caused behaviors are under an individual?s control; externally caused behaviors are motivated by outside forces.

19. ? 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8?19 Interpreting Behavior Distinctiveness Whether an individual displays a behavior in many situations or whether it is particular to one situation. Consensus If the individual responds in the same way as everyone else faced with a similar situation responds. Consistency The individual engages in the same behaviors regularly and consistently over time. How we determine the source of behavior is determined by three factors: distinctiveness, consensus, and consistency. Distinctiveness refers to whether an individual displays different behavior in different situations. If everyone who is faced with a similar situation responds in the same way, we can say the behavior shows consensus. Finally, an observer looks for consistency in a person?s actions. How we determine the source of behavior is determined by three factors: distinctiveness, consensus, and consistency. Distinctiveness refers to whether an individual displays different behavior in different situations. If everyone who is faced with a similar situation responds in the same way, we can say the behavior shows consensus. Finally, an observer looks for consistency in a person?s actions.

20. ? 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8?20 Judgment Errors Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal or personal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others. Self-Serving Bias The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors. For instance, fundamental attribution error is underestimating the influence of external factors and overestimating the influence of internal factors. Also, attributing success to internal factors and failure to external factors is called self-serving bias. For instance, fundamental attribution error is underestimating the influence of external factors and overestimating the influence of internal factors. Also, attributing success to internal factors and failure to external factors is called self-serving bias.

21. ? 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8?21 Learning Learning Defined Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. Operant Conditioning (B. F. Skinner) Argues that voluntary, or learned, behavior is a function of its consequences. Reinforcement increases the likelihood that behavior will be repeated; behavior that is not rewarded or is punished is less likely to be repeated. Rewards are most effective if they immediately follow the desired response. Learning is any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. Two theories explain how people learn: operant conditioning and social learning theory. Harvard psychologist B.F. Skinner expanded our knowledge of the concept of operant conditioning which argues that behavior is a function of its consequences. Operant or voluntary behavior is learned, unlike involuntary or unlearned behavior. Skinner assumed that behavior is learned rather than reflexive. He argued that creating pleasing consequences to follow a specific form of behavior will increase the frequency of the behavior. Therefore, people will engage in desired behaviors if they are positively reinforced for doing so. Behavior that is not rewarded or is punished is less likely to be repeated. Learning is any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. Two theories explain how people learn: operant conditioning and social learning theory. Harvard psychologist B.F. Skinner expanded our knowledge of the concept of operant conditioning which argues that behavior is a function of its consequences. Operant or voluntary behavior is learned, unlike involuntary or unlearned behavior. Skinner assumed that behavior is learned rather than reflexive. He argued that creating pleasing consequences to follow a specific form of behavior will increase the frequency of the behavior. Therefore, people will engage in desired behaviors if they are positively reinforced for doing so. Behavior that is not rewarded or is punished is less likely to be repeated.

22. ? 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8?22 Learning (cont?d) Social Learning Theory The theory that people can learn through observation and direct experience; by modeling the behavior of others. Modeling Processes Attentional processes Retention processes Motor reproduction processes Reinforcement processes The social learning theory asserts that we can learn through both observation and experience. An extension of operant conditioning, this theory assumes that behavior is a function of consequences and recognizes that perception is important to learning. The following processes are critical to an understanding of the roles that models play in social learning theory: The social learning theory asserts that we can learn through both observation and experience. An extension of operant conditioning, this theory assumes that behavior is a function of consequences and recognizes that perception is important to learning. The following processes are critical to an understanding of the roles that models play in social learning theory:

23. ? 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8?23 Shaping Behavior Shaping Behavior Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to a desired behavior Ways To Shape Behavior: Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Punishment Extinction When managers attempt to mold individuals by guiding their learning in graduated steps, they are shaping behavior. Managers shape behavior by systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an employee closer to the desired response. Methods of Shaping Behavior: Following a response with something pleasant is positive reinforcement. Following a response by the termination or withdrawal of something unpleasant is called negative reinforcement. Punishment is causing an unpleasant condition in an attempt to eliminate the undesirable behavior. Eliminating reinforcement that maintains behavior is called extinction. Both positive and negative reinforcement result in learning; however, both punishment and extinction weaken behavior and decrease its frequency. Research on reinforcement indicates that: 1. Reinforcement is necessary to produce a change in behavior. 2. Some types of rewards are better for organizational use than others. 3. Timing of reinforcement determines the speed and permanence of learning. Because employees continually learn on the job, the issue is whether managers let them learn randomly or whether they manage learning through the rewards they allocate and the examples they set.When managers attempt to mold individuals by guiding their learning in graduated steps, they are shaping behavior. Managers shape behavior by systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an employee closer to the desired response. Methods of Shaping Behavior: Following a response with something pleasant is positive reinforcement. Following a response by the termination or withdrawal of something unpleasant is called negative reinforcement. Punishment is causing an unpleasant condition in an attempt to eliminate the undesirable behavior. Eliminating reinforcement that maintains behavior is called extinction. Both positive and negative reinforcement result in learning; however, both punishment and extinction weaken behavior and decrease its frequency. Research on reinforcement indicates that: 1. Reinforcement is necessary to produce a change in behavior. 2. Some types of rewards are better for organizational use than others. 3. Timing of reinforcement determines the speed and permanence of learning. Because employees continually learn on the job, the issue is whether managers let them learn randomly or whether they manage learning through the rewards they allocate and the examples they set.

24. ? 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8?24 Foundations Of Group Behavior What is a Group? Two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve particular objectives Basic Concepts of Group Behavior Role A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone in a given position in a social unit Norms Acceptable standards (e.g., effort and performance, dress, and loyalty) shared and enforced by the members of a group Individuals act differently in groups than they do when they are alone. To understand organizational behavior, therefore, we must understand groups. A group is two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve particular objectives. Formal groups are established by the organization. These groups have designated assignments and established tasks. Behaviors are stipulated by and directed toward organizational goals. On the other hand, informal groups are of a social nature. These groups are natural formations that appear in the work environment in response to the need for social contact. Informal groups tend to form around friendships and common interests. When we play a role, we engage in a set of expected behavior patterns that are attributed to occupying a given position in a social unit. Role research has concluded the following: 1. People play multiple roles. 2. People learn roles from the stimuli around them. 3. People shift roles rapidly according to situational demands. 4. People experience conflict when one role contradicts another. Acceptable standards of group behavior that are shared by the group?s members are called norms. When accepted by the group, norms influence the group?s behavior with a minimum of external controls. Groups will exert pressure upon members to bring their behavior into conformity with the standards of the group. Since members desire acceptance by the group, they are susceptible to these conformity pressures. Individuals act differently in groups than they do when they are alone. To understand organizational behavior, therefore, we must understand groups. A group is two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve particular objectives. Formal groups are established by the organization. These groups have designated assignments and established tasks. Behaviors are stipulated by and directed toward organizational goals. On the other hand, informal groups are of a social nature. These groups are natural formations that appear in the work environment in response to the need for social contact. Informal groups tend to form around friendships and common interests. When we play a role, we engage in a set of expected behavior patterns that are attributed to occupying a given position in a social unit. Role research has concluded the following: 1. People play multiple roles. 2. People learn roles from the stimuli around them. 3. People shift roles rapidly according to situational demands. 4. People experience conflict when one role contradicts another. Acceptable standards of group behavior that are shared by the group?s members are called norms. When accepted by the group, norms influence the group?s behavior with a minimum of external controls. Groups will exert pressure upon members to bring their behavior into conformity with the standards of the group. Since members desire acceptance by the group, they are susceptible to these conformity pressures.

25. ? 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8?25 Foundations Of Group Behavior (cont?d) Status A prestige grading, position, or rank within a group May be informally conferred by characteristics such as education, age, skill, or experience. Anything can have status value if others in the group admire it. As a prestige grading, position, or rank within a group, status can be a powerful motivator to an individual if he perceives that others do not share his personal impression of his status. Status may be informally conferred because of education, age, skill, or experience. But, it is important for workers to believe that the organization?s formal status system is congruent; that is, an equity between the perceived ranking of an individual and his or her ?status symbols.? As a prestige grading, position, or rank within a group, status can be a powerful motivator to an individual if he perceives that others do not share his personal impression of his status. Status may be informally conferred because of education, age, skill, or experience. But, it is important for workers to believe that the organization?s formal status system is congruent; that is, an equity between the perceived ranking of an individual and his or her ?status symbols.?

26. ? 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8?26 Group Effects Size Size is a benefit or a hindrance depending on the criteria considered. Social loafing: the tendency of individuals in a group to decrease their efforts when responsibility and individual achievement cannot be measured. Group Cohesiveness The degree to which members of a group are attracted to each other and share goals Size, work environment, Length of time in existence, group-organization, and goal congruency affect group cohesiveness. Large groups with a dozen or more members are good for gaining diverse input; but, groups of about seven members are more effective for taking action. As groups get incrementally larger, the contribution of individual members lessens. For example, while total productivity in a group of four is greater than in a group of two, individual productivity declines. The reason for this decline may be social loafing: the tendency for individuals to expend less energy when working collectively than working individually. The idea of social loafing challenges some stereotypes: that team spirit engenders individual effort and enhances productivity, and that group productivity should at least equal the sum of the productivity of the individual group members. Therefore, managers who use collective work situations to enhance morale and promote teamwork must also identify individual efforts. Large groups with a dozen or more members are good for gaining diverse input; but, groups of about seven members are more effective for taking action. As groups get incrementally larger, the contribution of individual members lessens. For example, while total productivity in a group of four is greater than in a group of two, individual productivity declines. The reason for this decline may be social loafing: the tendency for individuals to expend less energy when working collectively than working individually. The idea of social loafing challenges some stereotypes: that team spirit engenders individual effort and enhances productivity, and that group productivity should at least equal the sum of the productivity of the individual group members. Therefore, managers who use collective work situations to enhance morale and promote teamwork must also identify individual efforts.


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