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Foundations of Individual and Group Behavior. Toward Explaining and Predicting Behavior. Organizational Behavior (OB) Defined: The study of the actions of people at work The Focus of OB Individual behaviors Personality, perception, learning, and motivation Group behaviors

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foundations of individual and group behavior

Foundations of Individual and Group Behavior

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

toward explaining and predicting behavior
Toward Explaining and Predicting Behavior
  • Organizational Behavior (OB) Defined:
    • The study of the actions of people at work
  • The Focus of OB
    • Individual behaviors
      • Personality, perception, learning, and motivation
    • Group behaviors
      • Norms, roles, team-and conflict
  • The Goals of OB
    • To explain behavior
    • To predict behavior

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

behaviors of interest to ob
Behaviors of Interest to OB
  • Employee Productivity
    • The efficiency and effectiveness of employees
  • Absenteeism
    • The election by employees to attend work
  • Turnover
    • The exit of an employee from an organization
  • Organizational Citizenship
    • Employee behaviors that promote the welfare of the organization

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

understanding employees
Understanding Employees
  • Attitudes
    • Valuative statements concerning objects, people, or events
      • Cognitive component
        • The beliefs, opinions, knowledge, and information held by a person
      • Affective component
        • The emotional, or feeling, segment of an attitude
      • Behavioral component
        • An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

job related attitudes
Job-Related Attitudes
  • Job Satisfaction
    • An employee’s general attitude toward his or her job.
  • Job Involvement
    • The degree to which an employee identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her job performance important for self-worth.
  • Organizational Commitment
    • An employee’s orientation toward the organization in terms of his or her loyalty to, identification with, and involvement in the organization.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

cognitive dissonance theory
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
  • Cognitive Dissonance
    • Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes
      • Inconsistency is uncomfortable and individuals will seek a stable state with a minimum of dissonance.
  • Desire to reduce dissonance is determined by:
    • The importance of the elements creating the dissonance.
    • The degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements.
    • The rewards that may be involved.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

fostering positive job attitudes
Fostering Positive Job Attitudes
  • Managers can reduce dissonance by:
    • Creating the perception that the source of the dissonance is externally imposed and uncontrollable.
    • Increasing employee rewards for engaging in the behaviors related to the dissonance.
  • Satisfied workers are not necessarily more productive workers.
    • Assisting employees in successful performance of their jobs will increase their desired outcomes and lead to increased job satisfaction—focusing on productivity as a means rather than an ends.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

personality and behavior
Personality and Behavior
  • Personality
    • Is the combination of the psychological traits that characterize that person.
  • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI®)
    • A method of identifying personality types uses four dimensions of personality to identify 16 different personality types.
  • Big Five Model
    • Five-factor model of personality that includes extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

myers briggs type indicator mbti
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
  • Extroversion versus Introversion (EI)
    • An individual’s orientation toward the inner world of ideas (I) or the external world of the environment (E).
  • Sensing versus Intuitive (SN)
    • An individual’s reliance on information gathered from the external world (S) or from the world of ideas (N).
  • Thinking versus Feeling (TF)
    • One’s preference for evaluating information in an analytical manner (T) or on the basis of values and beliefs (F).
  • Judging versus Perceiving (JP).
    • Reflects an attitude toward the external world that is either task completion oriented (J) or information seeking (P).

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

the big five model of personality
The Big Five Model of Personality

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

what is emotional intelligence ei
What Is Emotional Intelligence (EI)?
  • Emotional Intelligence (EI)
    • An assortment of noncognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a person’s ability to cope with environmental demands and pressures.
  • Dimensions of EI
    • Self-awareness own feelings
    • Self-management of own emotions
    • Self-motivation in face of setbacks
    • Empathy for others’ feelings
    • Social skills to handle others’ emotions

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

personality traits and work related behaviors
Personality Traits And Work-related Behaviors
  • Locus of Control
    • A personality attribute that measures the degree to which people believe that they are masters of their own fate.
  • Machiavellianism (“Mach”)
    • A measure of the degree to which people are pragmatic, maintain emotional distance, and believe that ends can justify means.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

personality traits and work related behaviors cont d
Personality Traits And Work-related Behaviors (cont’d)
  • Self-Esteem (SE)
    • An individual’s degree of life dislike for him- or herself
  • Self-Monitoring
    • A measure of an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors
  • Propensity for Risk Taking
    • The willingness to take chances—a preference to assume or avoid risk

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

key points of holland s model
Key Points of Holland’s Model
  • There do appear to be intrinsic differences in personality among individuals.
  • There are different types of jobs.
  • People in job environments congruent with their personality types should be more satisfied and less likely to resign voluntarily than people in incongruent jobs.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

personality characteristics of entrepreneurs
Personality Characteristics of Entrepreneurs
  • Proactive Personality
    • High level of motivation
      • Internal locus of control
      • Need for autonomy
    • Abundance of self-confidence
      • Self-esteem
    • High energy levels
      • Persistence
    • Moderate risk taker
      • Problem solver

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

perception
Perception
  • Perception
    • A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

influences on perception
Personal Characteristics

Attitudes

Personality

Motives

Interests

Past experiences

Expectations

TargetCharacteristics

Relationship of a target to its background

Closeness and/or similarity to other things

The context in object is seen

Other situational factors.

Influences on Perception

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

how do managers judge employees
How Do Managers Judge Employees?
  • Attribution Theory
    • A theory based on the premise that we judge people differently depending on the meaning we attribute to a given behavior.
      • Internally caused behavior is believed to be under the control of the individual.
      • Externally caused behavior results from outside causes; that is, the person is seen as having been forced into the behavior by the situation.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

interpreting behavior
Interpreting Behavior
  • Distinctiveness
    • Whether an individual displays a behavior in many situations or whether it is particular to one situation.
  • Consensus
    • If the individual responds in the same way as everyone else faced with a similar situation responds.
  • Consistency
    • The individual engages in the same behaviors regularly and consistently over time.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

judgment errors
Judgment Errors
  • Fundamental Attribution Error
    • The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal or personal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others.
  • Self-Serving Bias
    • The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

learning
Learning
  • Learning Defined
    • Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.
  • Operant Conditioning (B. F. Skinner)
    • Argues that voluntary, or learned, behavior is a function of its consequences.
      • Reinforcement increases the likelihood that behavior will be repeated; behavior that is not rewarded or is punished is less likely to be repeated.
      • Rewards are most effective if they immediately follow the desired response.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

learning cont d
Learning (cont’d)
  • Social Learning Theory
    • The theory that people can learn through observation and direct experience; by modeling the behavior of others.
  • Modeling Processes
    • Attentional processes
    • Retention processes
    • Motor reproduction processes
    • Reinforcement processes

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

shaping behavior
Shaping Behavior
  • Shaping Behavior
    • Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to a desired behavior
  • Ways To Shape Behavior:
    • Positive reinforcement
    • Negative reinforcement
    • Punishment
    • Extinction

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

foundations of group behavior
Foundations Of Group Behavior
  • What is a Group?
    • Two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve particular objectives
  • Basic Concepts of Group Behavior
    • Role
      • A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone in a given position in a social unit
    • Norms
      • Acceptable standards (e.g., effort and performance, dress, and loyalty) shared and enforced by the members of a group

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

foundations of group behavior cont d
Foundations Of Group Behavior (cont’d)
  • Status
    • A prestige grading, position, or rank within a group
      • May be informally conferred by characteristics such as education, age, skill, or experience.
      • Anything can have status value if others in the group admire it.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

group effects
Group Effects
  • Size
    • Size is a benefit or a hindrance depending on the criteria considered.
    • Social loafing: the tendency of individuals in a group to decrease their efforts when responsibility and individual achievement cannot be measured.
  • Group Cohesiveness
    • The degree to which members of a group are attracted to each other and share goals
      • Size, work environment, Length of time in existence, group-organization, and goal congruency affect group cohesiveness.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

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