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Foundations of Individual and Group Behavior






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Foundations of Individual and Group Behavior. Toward Explaining and Predicting Behavior. Organizational Behavior (OB) Defined: The study of the actions of people at work The Focus of OB Individual behaviors Personality, perception, learning, and motivation Group behaviors
Foundations of Individual and Group Behavior

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Slide 1

Foundations of Individual and Group Behavior

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 2

Toward Explaining and Predicting Behavior

  • Organizational Behavior (OB) Defined:

    • The study of the actions of people at work

  • The Focus of OB

    • Individual behaviors

      • Personality, perception, learning, and motivation

    • Group behaviors

      • Norms, roles, team-and conflict

  • The Goals of OB

    • To explain behavior

    • To predict behavior

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 3

Behaviors of Interest to OB

  • Employee Productivity

    • The efficiency and effectiveness of employees

  • Absenteeism

    • The election by employees to attend work

  • Turnover

    • The exit of an employee from an organization

  • Organizational Citizenship

    • Employee behaviors that promote the welfare of the organization

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 4

Understanding Employees

  • Attitudes

    • Valuative statements concerning objects, people, or events

      • Cognitive component

        • The beliefs, opinions, knowledge, and information held by a person

      • Affective component

        • The emotional, or feeling, segment of an attitude

      • Behavioral component

        • An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 5

Job-Related Attitudes

  • Job Satisfaction

    • An employee’s general attitude toward his or her job.

  • Job Involvement

    • The degree to which an employee identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her job performance important for self-worth.

  • Organizational Commitment

    • An employee’s orientation toward the organization in terms of his or her loyalty to, identification with, and involvement in the organization.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 6

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

  • Cognitive Dissonance

    • Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes

      • Inconsistency is uncomfortable and individuals will seek a stable state with a minimum of dissonance.

  • Desire to reduce dissonance is determined by:

    • The importance of the elements creating the dissonance.

    • The degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements.

    • The rewards that may be involved.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 7

Fostering Positive Job Attitudes

  • Managers can reduce dissonance by:

    • Creating the perception that the source of the dissonance is externally imposed and uncontrollable.

    • Increasing employee rewards for engaging in the behaviors related to the dissonance.

  • Satisfied workers are not necessarily more productive workers.

    • Assisting employees in successful performance of their jobs will increase their desired outcomes and lead to increased job satisfaction—focusing on productivity as a means rather than an ends.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 8

Personality and Behavior

  • Personality

    • Is the combination of the psychological traits that characterize that person.

  • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI®)

    • A method of identifying personality types uses four dimensions of personality to identify 16 different personality types.

  • Big Five Model

    • Five-factor model of personality that includes extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 9

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

  • Extroversion versus Introversion (EI)

    • An individual’s orientation toward the inner world of ideas (I) or the external world of the environment (E).

  • Sensing versus Intuitive (SN)

    • An individual’s reliance on information gathered from the external world (S) or from the world of ideas (N).

  • Thinking versus Feeling (TF)

    • One’s preference for evaluating information in an analytical manner (T) or on the basis of values and beliefs (F).

  • Judging versus Perceiving (JP).

    • Reflects an attitude toward the external world that is either task completion oriented (J) or information seeking (P).

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 10

The Big Five Model of Personality

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 11

What Is Emotional Intelligence (EI)?

  • Emotional Intelligence (EI)

    • An assortment of noncognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a person’s ability to cope with environmental demands and pressures.

  • Dimensions of EI

    • Self-awareness own feelings

    • Self-management of own emotions

    • Self-motivation in face of setbacks

    • Empathy for others’ feelings

    • Social skills to handle others’ emotions

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 12

Personality Traits And Work-related Behaviors

  • Locus of Control

    • A personality attribute that measures the degree to which people believe that they are masters of their own fate.

  • Machiavellianism (“Mach”)

    • A measure of the degree to which people are pragmatic, maintain emotional distance, and believe that ends can justify means.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 13

Personality Traits And Work-related Behaviors (cont’d)

  • Self-Esteem (SE)

    • An individual’s degree of life dislike for him- or herself

  • Self-Monitoring

    • A measure of an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors

  • Propensity for Risk Taking

    • The willingness to take chances—a preference to assume or avoid risk

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 14

Key Points of Holland’s Model

  • There do appear to be intrinsic differences in personality among individuals.

  • There are different types of jobs.

  • People in job environments congruent with their personality types should be more satisfied and less likely to resign voluntarily than people in incongruent jobs.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 15

Personality Characteristics of Entrepreneurs

  • Proactive Personality

    • High level of motivation

      • Internal locus of control

      • Need for autonomy

    • Abundance of self-confidence

      • Self-esteem

    • High energy levels

      • Persistence

    • Moderate risk taker

      • Problem solver

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 16

Perception

  • Perception

    • A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 17

Personal Characteristics

Attitudes

Personality

Motives

Interests

Past experiences

Expectations

TargetCharacteristics

Relationship of a target to its background

Closeness and/or similarity to other things

The context in object is seen

Other situational factors.

Influences on Perception

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 18

How Do Managers Judge Employees?

  • Attribution Theory

    • A theory based on the premise that we judge people differently depending on the meaning we attribute to a given behavior.

      • Internally caused behavior is believed to be under the control of the individual.

      • Externally caused behavior results from outside causes; that is, the person is seen as having been forced into the behavior by the situation.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 19

Interpreting Behavior

  • Distinctiveness

    • Whether an individual displays a behavior in many situations or whether it is particular to one situation.

  • Consensus

    • If the individual responds in the same way as everyone else faced with a similar situation responds.

  • Consistency

    • The individual engages in the same behaviors regularly and consistently over time.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 20

Judgment Errors

  • Fundamental Attribution Error

    • The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal or personal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others.

  • Self-Serving Bias

    • The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 21

Learning

  • Learning Defined

    • Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.

  • Operant Conditioning (B. F. Skinner)

    • Argues that voluntary, or learned, behavior is a function of its consequences.

      • Reinforcement increases the likelihood that behavior will be repeated; behavior that is not rewarded or is punished is less likely to be repeated.

      • Rewards are most effective if they immediately follow the desired response.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 22

Learning (cont’d)

  • Social Learning Theory

    • The theory that people can learn through observation and direct experience; by modeling the behavior of others.

  • Modeling Processes

    • Attentional processes

    • Retention processes

    • Motor reproduction processes

    • Reinforcement processes

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 23

Shaping Behavior

  • Shaping Behavior

    • Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to a desired behavior

  • Ways To Shape Behavior:

    • Positive reinforcement

    • Negative reinforcement

    • Punishment

    • Extinction

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 24

Foundations Of Group Behavior

  • What is a Group?

    • Two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve particular objectives

  • Basic Concepts of Group Behavior

    • Role

      • A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone in a given position in a social unit

    • Norms

      • Acceptable standards (e.g., effort and performance, dress, and loyalty) shared and enforced by the members of a group

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 25

Foundations Of Group Behavior (cont’d)

  • Status

    • A prestige grading, position, or rank within a group

      • May be informally conferred by characteristics such as education, age, skill, or experience.

      • Anything can have status value if others in the group admire it.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 26

Group Effects

  • Size

    • Size is a benefit or a hindrance depending on the criteria considered.

    • Social loafing: the tendency of individuals in a group to decrease their efforts when responsibility and individual achievement cannot be measured.

  • Group Cohesiveness

    • The degree to which members of a group are attracted to each other and share goals

      • Size, work environment, Length of time in existence, group-organization, and goal congruency affect group cohesiveness.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.


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