Leishmaniasis. Different stages of Haemoflagellates. Leishmania life cycle. Promastigote Amasitgote Transformation. Leishmania life cycle. Amastigotes replicate in reticuloendothelial cells (mononuclear cells) including; Monocytes Macrophages in lymph nodes, spleen, and lung;
Leishmania life cycle
Promastigotes reproduce in biting fly (Phlebotomus, Lutzomyia)
The disease main forms
Skin ulcers on the exposed parts of the body such as the face, arms and legs.
Old World: L. major, L. tropica, L. aethiopica (DCL)
New World: L. mexicana, L. pifanoi, L. amazonensis, L. venezuelensis, L. granhami,
In Iran: P. papatasi.
Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis
L. donovani, anthroponotic
L. infantum, zoonosis,
L. donovani ,(archibaldi), zoonosis,
L. chagasi, zoonotic
- Causative agent is L. infantum
- Reservior host: involving canine such as Dog, Jackal, fox, wolf and other wild carnivorouses.
- The probable main vector in Iran is Phlebotomus major (Fars), other vectors are P.keshishiani (Fars), P. Perfiliewi (Dashte-Moghan),P. kandelakii (Meshkinshahr).
- Age distribution: the disease mainly occurs in children from 1 to 4 years of age.
Laboratory Diagnosis of leishmaniasis :
1. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
2. Visceral Leishmaniasis