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Knowledge Structure Mapping in the Adaptive Enterprise. Richard Ellis Stratum Management Ltd. KSM in the Adaptive Enterprise. Human Knowledge Management in Context Knowledge Structure KSM Methodology and Case Study Meeting the Challenges fo Human Knowledge Management

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Knowledge structure mapping in the adaptive enterprise l.jpg

Knowledge Structure Mappingin theAdaptive Enterprise

Richard Ellis

Stratum Management Ltd


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KSM in the Adaptive Enterprise

  • Human Knowledge Management in Context

  • Knowledge Structure

  • KSM Methodology and Case Study

  • Meeting the Challenges fo Human Knowledge Management

  • KSM Applications in Defence


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Human Knowledge Management - Context

  • The need to manage human knowledge has been recognised, but remains poorly understood.

  • Human Knowledge Management requires very different approaches from other KM and IM areas.

  • The human knowledge resource needs to be developed and managed in parallel with other resources.

  • In an adaptive enterprise, dynamic change in the knowledge resource must be managed


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Challenges in Managing Human Knowledge

  • Poorly defined and delineated knowledge areas

  • Inconsistent terminology

  • Lack of a common representation of the knowledge area

  • Poor integration of human knowledge with other KM and IM activities


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Supporting knowledge

Knowledge Structure

  • Knowledge possesses a natural, accessible structure, based on the pre-requisite or implicit knowledge that supports each knowledge element.

    Ifwe know how to do X

    Thenwe know how to do Awe know how to do Bwe know how to do C

Ifwe know how to Make Tea

Thenwe know how to Boil Waterwe know how to Add Teawe know how to Pour Hot Water

  • Knowledge Structure Mapping exploits these structural relationships to allow a thorough and systematic exploration of a knowledge area


Knowledge structure example l.jpg

Knowing how to

Interview people effectively

Knowing

Interview theory

Knowing how to

Organisean interview

Knowing how to

Recordinformation

Knowing how to

Define interviewobjectives

Knowing how to

Explore a topicof discussion

Knowledge Structure Example


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KSM Methodology - Building the Map

  • Identify the knowledge or business area to be addressed, in the form of the question:

    "What do we need to know in order to do X?"

  • Identify the top knowledge elements.

  • Iteratively identify the prerequisites of these elements, progressively developing a knowledge map for the area.

  • For each element, develop a full description and identify and identify relevant sources of information.


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KSM Methodology - Assessing the Knowledge

  • Identify key characteristics of each knowledge element.

    ImportanceHow important is this knowledge element?

    Difficulty How difficult is it for the organisation to gain or replace this knowledge?

    Study - Experience Can this knowledge be gained through study, or is it based on experience?

    Known by What proportion of the organisation have this knowledge?


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KSM Methodology - Analysis and Reporting

  • Use this information to support analysis of the knowledge area

    • Risk areas

    • Profiles

    • Suggested solutions

  • Bring the results of the analysis back to the organisation:

    • to support decisions in the management of human knowledge

    • to promote discussion of the knowledge resource

    • to provide a basis for developing other areas of the organisation


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Typical Knowledge Study

  • Knowledge is gathered from experts within the client organisation.

  • Study focuses on a specific problem or challenge.

  • Structured interviews with knowledge experts are used to iteratively develop the knowledge map.

  • Analysis and reporting carried out off-site. Results fed back to the organisation through:

    • Knowledge Map

    • Reports and Analyses

    • Guided discussions

  • Typical duration is 3-6 weeks.


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KSM Example….

Continuous Improvement

In the

Advanced Manufacturing Cell

For Eurofighter Typhoon


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KSM Study - Continuous Improvement

Study undertaken with BAE Systems:

What you need to know in order to understand continuous improvement (CI) in the Advanced Manufacturing Technology Cell (AMT)


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Importance

Difficulty

Study-Exp

Known By




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Poorly Defined and Delineated Knowledge Areas

Inconsistent Terminology

Lack of a Common Medium

Poor Integration with other KM Activities

Meeting the Challenges


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KSM - Application in the defence domain

  • Organisational and Management Issues (eg Acquisition)

  • HQ Structures

  • Deployment planning

  • Training for a new capability

  • Planning Long term recruitment and development

  • Understanding Opponents’ Knowledge Needs and Vulnerabilities


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KSM - Summary

  • Allows managers to visualise the knowledge resource in a chosen domain or application.

  • Provides a common and accessible framework for discussion about the knowledge resource.

  • Offers automated analysis and information sharing tools.

  • Supports managers in making decisions about the knowledge resource.


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We need to know

what we need to know.

Knowledge Structure Mappingin theAdaptive Enterprise

Questions

Richard Ellis ([email protected])

John Gordon ([email protected])


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A Brief Digression

Data ManagementvInformation ManagementvKnowledge Management


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Information: Data that has been processed in such a way that it can increase the knowledge of the person who receives it.

Data: factual information used as a basis for reasoning, discussion, or calculation

Knowledge Management: the collection, organization, analysis, and sharing of information held by workers and groups within an organization.

Data: a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn

Information: knowledge acquired through study or experience or instruction

Knowledge management: the organization, creation, sharing and flow of knowledge within organizations.

Information management is the handling of knowledge acquired by one or many disparate sources

Knowledge: the fact of knowing, acquaintance, familiarity gained by experience, intellectual acquaintance with or perception of, fact or truth, understanding, a mental apprehension, perception, intuition, or other cognition

Information: the result of processing, manipulating and organizing data in a way that adds to the knowledge of the person receiving it.

Knowledge is the awareness and understanding of facts, truths or information gained in the form of experience or learning.

Information is measured as the decrease in uncertainty of a receiver or molecular machine in going from the before state to the after state.

(Claude Shannon, A Mathematical Theory of Communication)


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Information: Data that has been processed in such a way that it can increase the knowledge of the person who receives it.

Data: factual information used as a basis for reasoning, discussion, or calculation

Knowledge Management: the collection, organization, analysis, and sharing of information held by workers and groups within an organization.

Data: a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn

Information: knowledge acquired through study or experience or instruction

Knowledge management: the organization, creation, sharing and flow of knowledge within organizations.

Information management is the handling of knowledge acquired by one or many disparate sources

Knowledge: the fact of knowing, acquaintance, familiarity gained by experience, intellectual acquaintance with or perception of, fact or truth, understanding, a mental apprehension, perception, intuition, or other cognition

Information: the result of processing, manipulating and organizing data in a way that adds to the knowledge of the person receiving it.

Knowledge is the awareness and understanding of facts, truths or information gained in the form of experience or learning.

Information is measured as the decrease in uncertainty of a receiver or molecular machine in going from the before state to the after state.

(Claude Shannon, A Mathematical Theory of Communication)

KSMfocuses on the Human Knowledgeheld or needed in an organisation




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New Knowledge Challenges

"Nothing endures but change."

Heraclitus (540 BC - 480 BC)


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New Knowledge Challenges

  • We live in a time of change



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Grappling with Knowledge

  • Human Knowledge can be a difficult concept to work with.

  • But knowledge has a structure, with some knowledge elements supported by others.

  • Knowledge structure is a natural concept, and provides an accessible mechanism for discussing and analysing knowledge.


Knowledge structure interviewing l.jpg

Knowing how to

Interview people effectively

Knowing

Interview theory

Knowing how to

Organisean interview

Knowing how to

Recordinformation

Knowing how to

Define interviewobjectives

Knowing how to

Explore a topicof discussion

Knowledge Structure - Interviewing


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Using Knowledge Structure

  • Understanding the structure of knowledge in a particular area of the business

    • provides a common frame of reference for discussion

    • provides structural information about the knowledge that relates directly to the way the knowledge can be developed and utilised.

    • supports management decision making.


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Knowledge Structure Mapping - Overview

  • Method and toolset designed to explore the structure of knowledge in a chosen domain or application.

  • Developed and matured by Applied Knowledge Research Institute over the last ten years.

  • Based on academic research into expert knowledge acquisition.

  • Designed to answer practical questions about an organisation’s knowledge resource


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KSM Applications

  • Used internally by Rolls-Royce plc (called Structural Knowledge Auditing by Rolls-Royce)

  • Used in other large and small businesses such as BAE Systems, Promethean, Pendle Borough Council etc.

  • Applied knowledge areas as diverse as:

    • Procurement

    • Continuous Improvement

    • Super Plastic Forming and Diffusion Bonding

    • Off-Licence Retail etc.


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KSM - A typical Knowledge Study

  • Carried out by two fully trained analysts.

  • Involves work with a business team of between 4 and 16 people.

  • Delivers results in 3 to 4 weeks.

  • Provides:

    • A visualisation of the knowledge area

    • Expert opinion concerning the knowledge that is used, along with knowledge structural information.

    • Observation and conclusions concerning the business use of the knowledge resource

    • Additional learning support information to supplement staff development and knowledge resource growth.

  • Larger projects may be delivered in 3-4 week modules ensuring that business managers remain in control of full project development.


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KSM Example….

Continuous Improvement

In the

Advanced Manufacturing Cell

For Eurofighter Typhoon


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KSM Study - Continuous Improvement

Study undertaken with BAE Systems:

What you need to know in order to understand continuous improvement (CI) in the Advanced Manufacturing Technology Cell (AMT)


Slide46 l.jpg

Importance

Difficulty

Study-Exp

Known By




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Colour Coded Risk.Red High – Blue Low






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Data Export and Sharing Schedule’

  • The KSM Toolkit provides a range of formatted reports, suitable for importing into other applications.

  • xml export is provided, and used in Corax, a web enabled knowledge browser.


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KSM - Summary Schedule’

  • Allows managers to visualise the knowledge resource in a chosen domain or application.

  • Provides a common and accessible framework for discussion about the knowledge resource.

  • Offers automated analysis and information sharing tools.

  • Supports managers in making decisions about the knowledge resource.


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KSM and NEC Schedule’

  • NEC way ahead - from Systems to Knowledge

  • Grappling with Knowledge

  • Knowledge Structure Mapping

  • Potential applications of KSM in Defence


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Application in the military domain Schedule’

  • HQ Structures

  • Deployment planning

  • Training for a new capability

  • Long term recruitment and development

  • Acquisition


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KSM and NEC Schedule’

  • Knowledge will be a key to NEC.

  • We need a method of grappling with knowledge and its structure.

  • KSM is one method that can provide an essential insight into the knowledge needs of the future.


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