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In the eyes of empire builders men are not men but instruments. Napoleon Bonaparte. Empire “a major political unit having a territory of great extent or a number of territories or peoples under a single sovereign authority; especially : one having an emperor as chief of state “
In the eyes of empire builders men are not men but instruments.
“a major political unit having a territory of great extent or a number of territories or peoples under a single sovereign authority; especially: one having an emperor as chief of state “
~ Merriam-Webster Dictionary
-Cyrus (reigned 557-530 BCE)
-Darius (reigned 522-486 BCE)
-Cyrus allowed Jews who had been exiled in Babylon to return to their homeland and rebuild their temple in Jerusalem in 539 BCE
-Facilitating communication and commerce
-Speaking the same language
-Frequently in conflict
Expansive people, but expansion took the form of settlement in distant places
-Greek traders in search of iron
-Impoverished farmers in search of land
-All citizens could directly participate in the affairs of government
-However, women, slaves, and foreigners were notcitizens
Solon, a reforming leader, in 594 BCE pushed Athens in a more democratic direction
-Debt slavery was abolished
-Public office was opened to a wider group of men
-All citizens were allowed to take part in the Assembly
-Even the poorest could serve
In Athens, all free men born in Athens were eventually granted citizenship
-twenty-eight men over the age of sixty
-served for life and provided political leadership
-By 499 BCE, some Ionian Greeks revolted against Persian domination and found support from Athens
-triumphed in momentous Battle of Marathon in 490 BCE
-Persia represented despotism (East/West divide)
-poorer Greeks in a position for full citizenship
-built the Parthenon
-Greek theater (Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides)
-Socrates, the quintessential philosopher
-Sparta taking the lead in defending the independence of the city-states
-known as Peloponnesian War
-Conquered Egypt and Anatolia
-Conquered Persian Empire
-Arrived in Indian subcontinent
(Soldiers insisted on returning home)
-Particularly in many cities that Alexander and later Hellenistic rulers established
-Greek monuments, theaters, and markets
-Greek learning flourished (library in Alexandria of some 700,000 volumes)
-Indian ruler, Ashoka, published some of his decrees in Greek
-Buddha was depicted in human form due to Greek influence
How did the interaction between humans and the environment impact the development of Greek culture?
Compare the political structure of the Persian Empire to that of Greece.
The Persian Empire was
also known as the Achaemenid
Discuss the reasons for political and social fragmentation in classical Greece.
“A good wife should be the mistress of her home, having under her care all that is within it, according to the rules we have laid down. She should allow none to enter without her husband\'s knowledge, dreading above all things the gossip of gadding women, which tends to poison the soul. She alone should have knowledge of what happens within. She must exercise control of the money spent on such festivities as her husband has approved---keeping, moreover, within the limit set by law upon expenditure, dress, and ornament---and remembering that beauty depends not on costliness of raiment. Nor does abundance of gold so conduce to the praise of a woman as self-control in all that she does. This, then, is the province over which a woman should be minded to bear an orderly rule; for it seems not fitting that a man should know all that passes within the house. But in all other matters, let it be her aim to obey her husband; giving no heed to public affairs, nor having any part in arranging the marriages of her children.”